This chapter explores Chinese efforts at indigenising Christianity and this could not have been more obvious than with the Taiping Rebellion. It explains why both the Qing’s intellectual elite and foreign missionaries shunned the Taiping Rebellion. It also probes the strange alliance to suppress the Taiping between the Westerners who waged the Second Opium War on China and the Qing regime.
The first decade of the twentieth century saw anti-Qing insurrection culminate in the 1911 Nationalist Revolution. But the new Nationalist government of the Republic of China had neither the power nor the means to manage the country. Revolutions of different kinds, from ideological to literary, from feminist to cultural, were also taking place and it was these that were really changing the country.
This chapter examines the origins of the late Qing reform and exposes the difficulties as the conservative and reformist factions battled each other both at court and around the country. Although many historians have argued that the reform was a failure, this chapter singles out a few cases to highlight the foundation it laid for later reforms and the overseas connection which would open a new door for China.