Security and enlargement into the twenty-first century
Alistair J.K. Shepherd
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book examines the impact that enlargement will have on leadership within the European Union (EU), a pre-requisite for policy coherence. It tackles a range of different security issues. The book adopts a broad geographical scope, by examining key security relationships with states and regions in the EU's self-declared neighbourhood, namely Russia, Ukraine, Turkey, the Greater Middle East and the Balkans. Returning to the development of an EU counter-terrorist policy, the book argues that the 2004 enlargement was an opportunity to pause, take stock and refocus efforts, rather than simply continuing the momentum of rhetoric. It also argues that, due to the 'War on Terror', the human rights security nexus has remained at the forefront of EU security policy.
This chapter provides an overview of the foreign policy priorities and interests of the new member states (NMS), highlighting areas of match and mismatch with those of the European Union (EU) fifteen. The NMS have been active in both civilian and military operations. They have approached these operations with the same political pragmatism that has shaped their attitude to EU-North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) relations: support the EU while keeping the US on side. The chapter examines the capabilities the NMS bring to European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) to tackle these policies, to determine whether a new capabilities gap will emerge or whether enlargement will help overcome the capability shortfalls. It assesses the impact of enlargement on ESDP decision making and leadership. It concludes with an overall assessment of the opportunities and risks enlargement brings to ESDP and thus its ability to enhance the EU's role in international security.
The first European Union's (EU) enlargement of the twenty-first century coincides with a period of international tension and transition. Tensions have been apparent over: the war in Iraq, the 'War on Terror', immigration, organised crime, ethnic confrontation, human rights, energy resources and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The EU has made genuine progress in developing its security policies since the launch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This book examines the impact that enlargement will have on leadership within the EU, a pre-requisite for policy coherence. It focuses on what has been Europe's most significant region in terms of security challenges and international responses since the end of the Cold War: the Balkan. The book provides an overview of the foreign policy priorities and interests of the new member states (NMS), highlighting areas of match and mismatch with those of the EU fifteen. Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU's Third Pillar, and has been propelled to the forefront of the EU's internal agenda, driven by the demands of the 'War on Terror'. The book discusses the core elements of the EU's emerging common external border management, with a focus on the creation of the EU's new External Borders Agency and the Schengen Borders Code. While the first two are declarative partnership and declarative negativism, the last two reflect the struggle between pragmatism and Soviet-style suspicion of Western bureaucrats.