Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the European Union's (EU) Third Pillar, propelled into the limelight by the events of September 11 and maintained by terrorist incidents in Spain and the UK. This chapter considers the relative prioritisation of counter-terrorism within the crowded internal security pillar and examines 'implementation gap'. Initially relegated in importance at the outset of the Third Pillar arrangements, counter-terrorism has been propelled to the forefront of the EU's internal agenda, driven by the demands of the 'War on Terror'. Pre-enlargement, the EU's record was unimpressive across the gamut of internal security arrangements. The labelling of such internal security competences, including counter-terrorism, as a 'matter of common concern' will be placed under the spotlight, in terms of the commonality both of the problem facing the EU and the nature of their response. The lack of commonality will have consequences in terms of organising an EU-wide response.
This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book considers enlargement's wider impact on the European Union's (EU) security agenda. It highlights two central issues: internal cohesion and external projection. The book focuses on three areas within such a 'neighbourhood', relations with the Former Soviet Union (FSU), Russia, Turkey and the Greater Middle East and the Balkans. It also focuses on different, yet connected, aspects of the wider EU-Russia relationship, from the Chechen issue to arms trafficking in the Baltic region. This relationship colours a wide array of EU activities, from energy security to counter-terrorism, from the advancement of Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) to the future of the EU's enlargement process, in relation to both the Ukraine and Moldova.
The first European Union's (EU) enlargement of the twenty-first century coincides with a period of international tension and transition. Tensions have been apparent over: the war in Iraq, the 'War on Terror', immigration, organised crime, ethnic confrontation, human rights, energy resources and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The EU has made genuine progress in developing its security policies since the launch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This book examines the impact that enlargement will have on leadership within the EU, a pre-requisite for policy coherence. It focuses on what has been Europe's most significant region in terms of security challenges and international responses since the end of the Cold War: the Balkan. The book provides an overview of the foreign policy priorities and interests of the new member states (NMS), highlighting areas of match and mismatch with those of the EU fifteen. Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU's Third Pillar, and has been propelled to the forefront of the EU's internal agenda, driven by the demands of the 'War on Terror'. The book discusses the core elements of the EU's emerging common external border management, with a focus on the creation of the EU's new External Borders Agency and the Schengen Borders Code. While the first two are declarative partnership and declarative negativism, the last two reflect the struggle between pragmatism and Soviet-style suspicion of Western bureaucrats.