This chapter concentrates on a case study from outside the European Union's (EU) borders, because it highlights both the scale of the problem and the EU's limitations in dealing with it at a political and operational level. It provides an overview of organised crime in the Balkans and selects Transdniestria as a case study of a criminalised zone in the EU's new neighbourhood. The Transdniestria example focuses on identifying the links between organised crime and frozen conflicts and the policy implications this has for EU enlargement and foreign policy. The relationship between EU enlargement and the soft security threats posed by organised crime is complex and heavily contested. The existence of Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika (PMR) appears an insurmountable blockage to the consolidation and democratisation of the post-Soviet Moldovan state and to any aspirations of Moldova joining the EU.