How inclusive are the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and the European Union (EU)? The enlargement of both organisations seems to give some substance to the vision of a ‘Europe whole and free’ articulated at the Cold War's end. Yet more recently, enlargement's limits have increasingly come to be recognised, bringing an important debate on the balance to be struck between inclusion and exclusion. This book examines that sometimes awkward balance. Its analytical starting point is the characterisation of much of Europe as a security community managed by a system of security governance. The boundary of this system is neither clear nor fixed, but a dynamic of inclusion and exclusion can be said to exist by reference to its most concrete expression—that of institutional enlargement. On this basis, the book offers an elaboration of the concept of security governance itself, complemented by a historical survey of the Cold War and its end, the post-Cold War development of NATO and the EU, and case studies of two important ‘excluded’ states: Russia and Turkey.
This chapter explores how different forms of inclusion and exclusion relate to a broader system of security relations in post-Cold War Europe. In so doing, it utilises the notion of ‘security community’, which has features deducible from its core characteristic of regulated peace. It considers these features as a form of ‘security governance’ at the international level. Governance of this type is evidenced by reference to the categories of region, institutionalisation and compliance. These categories help in delineating relations of governance within the security community itself and, equally, help to conceptualise the ‘fuzzy’ boundary between that community and its external environment. This chapter first discusses war and conflict in Europe after the Cold War, neo-realism and neo-institutionalism, security cooperation, peace, liberal theory on European security, social constructivism and the limits of Europe's security community.
For those fortunate to live in a prosperous democratic state in the first decade of the 2000s, the politics of inclusion seems a natural state of affairs. It is indeed one of the most powerful legitimating claims of democratic political life. The ability to deliver welfare, prosperity and security to all citizens is the premise of successful electoral politics. This book considers one important aspect of the relationship between inclusion and exclusion, namely, how it has been played out in the sphere of international security, how the organisation of security on a European level has developed since the Cold War watershed, and what enduring forms of exclusion have remained. The credibility of the claims made on behalf of the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation rest on enlargement and partnership and, in security terms, the functional competence of these two organisations in addressing post-Cold War concerns. This book elaborates the notion of ‘security governance’, itself seen as related to the more familiar concept of security community, and looks at two important ‘excluded’ states: Russia and Turkey.
In a book intended to have a contemporary bearing, it may seem idiosyncratic to devote an entire chapter to the Cold War. There are, after all, other more recent episodes which could be said to have shaped international politics and to which connections can be drawn with the book's central concerns of inclusion/exclusion and security. Yet security relations in Europe, both at present and for the foreseeable future, will be shaped more by the legacies of the Cold War than by any other set of circumstances. This chapter examines how Europe's security relations shifted from a politics of exclusion during the Cold War to one with a more inclusive dynamic; an inclusiveness, however, based on the particular circumstances of power and the weight of international institutions at the Cold War's end. After considering the bloc logic of the Cold War, it discusses the development of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and the emergence of European integration, the ideology of the Cold War, and the end of the Cold War and the possibilities and limits of inclusion.
The question of Turkey's relationship to Europe's security community is, in one sense, a seemingly superfluous one; the country has, after all, been a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation for decades. Yet in a post-Cold War Europe where security community and European security governance are increasingly linked to the European Union (EU) as much as the Alliance, the question has seemed more and more pertinent. Turkey's exclusion from the EU, moreover, sits alongside other controversial and sometimes fraught issues: the question of Cyprus, relations with Greece, a difficult democratic transition and, in broad terms, the matter of Europeanness. These, and other matters, have on occasion pitted Turkey against both public and elite opinion in Europe and, indeed, have caused division within Turkey itself. On these grounds, the issue of inclusion and exclusion has been a live one in Turkey's relationship with Europe for decades, if not centuries. This chapter discusses Turkey's search for inclusion in Europe and looks at the categories of region, institutionalisation and compliance.
Is Russia part of the European security community? What is its relationship to the structures of European security governance? It was previously suggested that Russia occupies an ambiguous position—related to but not fully part of this community or its system of governance. This chapter elaborates this theme in greater detail, first by setting out in broad terms the nature of Russia's exclusion and then by analysing its relationship with Europe in terms of a search on both sides for a more inclusive relationship. It explores the possibilities and parameters of this relationship, focusing on the long-term prospects of Russian integration into the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and, more schematically, its standing in relation to the core features of security governance. The chapter also discusses Russia's search for inclusion in Europe and characterises security governance by looking at region, institutionalisation and compliance.
As the Cold War ended, a reinvigorated role for the European Union (EU) required of its leaders a major political, even intellectual, readjustment. Prior to 1989, the European Community had enlarged on three occasions. To the original six members of the then European Economic Community (France, Italy, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) were added Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom in 1973, Greece in 1981 and, five years later Spain and Portugal. These enlargements were, however, entirely consistent with the Cold War division of Europe. From its inception, the process of European integration has been explicitly informed by a desire among the governments of Europe to preserve peace on the continent. This chapter explores security governance and security community in the EU, partnership and enlargement, inclusion and exclusion, and the limits of enlargement. To assess how the limits of enlargement are to be gauged and how these relate to security governance, the chapter also turns to the categories of region, institutionalisation, and compliance. Finally, it describes the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Justice and Home Affairs.
This chapter assesses the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation's (NATO) relevance in terms of how it has contributed to a dynamic of inclusion and, in parallel, of exclusion in European security. It also highlights two fundamental developments which flowed from NATO's strategic response to the end of the Cold War and which have been reinforced by the impact of the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States. These are, first, an extension of geopolitical remit, and second, a widening of purpose. The first of these informed debates on NATO's persistence in the immediate aftermath of the Cold War and has been carried forward through processes of liaison, partnership and enlargement. The second has informed the manner in which NATO has acted as a vehicle of security provision and, related to this, the implicit, and sometimes explicit, message it has projected as to where the threats to security reside. This chapter also analyses NATO's role in security governance and security community in Europe, along with region, institutionalisation and compliance.
In so far as debate exists on the governance of Europe in the early twenty-first century, it is conducted in parochial terms. The European order emerged from the settlement of the Cold War and has been consolidated through the adaptation and enlargement of the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). These bodies do not represent the totality of Europe's security governance nor are they the sole expression of the broader phenomenon of a European security community. Yet they are, without doubt, among its most important defining features, to which there is now ‘no serious revisionist challenge’. Neither NATO nor the EU can simply be characterised as practising a politics of exclusion. In broad terms, enlargement, partnership and association have typified an equally important politics of inclusion. While the categories of region, institutionalisation and compliance used to examine security governance in many ways approximate the EU/NATO boundary, to some degree they also extend beyond it.