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The Muslim immigrant experience in Britain and Germany
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This book is a study of two post-war Muslim ethnic minority communities that have been overwhelmingly neglected in the academic literature and public debate on migration to Britain and Germany: those of Newcastle upon Tyne and Bremen. In what is the first work to offer a comparative assessment of Muslim migrant populations at a local level between these two countries, it provides an examination of everyday immigrant experiences and a reassessment of ethnic minority integration on a European scale. It traces the development of Muslim migrants from their arrival to and settlement in these post-industrial societies through to their emergence as fixed attributes on their cities’ landscapes. Through its focus on the employment, housing and education sectors, this study exposes the role played by ethnic minority aspirations and self-determination. Other themes that run throughout include the long-term effects of Britain and Germany’s overarching post-war immigration frameworks; the convergence between local policies and Muslim ethnic minority behaviour in both cities; and the extent to which Islam, the size of migrant communities, and regional identity influence the integration process. The arguments and debates addressed are not only pertinent to Newcastle and Bremen, but have a nation- and Europe-wide relevance, with the conclusions transgressing the immediate field of historical studies. This book is essential reading for academics and students alike with an interest in migration studies, modern Britain and Germany, and the place of Islam in contemporary Europe.

Rethinking integration
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This book is the first comprehensive study of Muslim migrant integration in rural Britain across the post-1960s period. It uses the county of Wiltshire as a case study, and assesses both local authority policies and strategies, and Muslim communities’ personal experiences of migration and integration. It draws upon previously unexplored archival material and oral histories, and addresses a range of topics and themes, including entrepreneurship, housing, education, multiculturalism, social cohesion, and religious identities, needs and practices. It challenges the long-held assumption that local authorities in more rural areas have been inactive, and even disinterested, in devising and implementing migration, integration and diversity policies, and it sheds light on small and dispersed Muslim communities that have traditionally been written out of Britain’s immigration history. It reveals what is a clear, and often complex, relationship between rurality and integration, and shows how both local authority policies and Muslim migrants’ experiences have long been rooted in, and shaped by, their rural settings and the prevalence of small ethnic minority communities and Muslim populations in particular. The study’s findings and conclusions build upon research on migration and integration at the rural level, as well as local-level migrant policies, experiences and integration, and uncover what has long been a rural dimension to Muslim integration in Britain.

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A history of immigration to modern Britain and Germany: national and local perspectives
Sarah Hackett

This chapter provides an insight into both Britain and Germany’s immigration policies in the post-war era. It stresses the vast differences in the thinking behind Britain’s relatively liberal (albeit constrained after 1962) immigration policy and West Germany’s rigid guest-worker rotation system. It then introduces the Muslim immigrant communities of Newcastle upon Tyne and Bremen, explaining the rationale for choosing these two cities as case studies. Lastly, it discusses the sources used and the methodology adopted.

in Foreigners, minorities and integration
The employment sector
Sarah Hackett

This chapter highlights the extent to which not discrimination, but rather a desire for self-employment and economic independence, has frequently determined the overall performance and behaviour of Muslim immigrants in both Newcastle and Bremen’s employment sectors. Research reveals how these immigrants used training and capital-accumulation in order to establish small businesses, indicating that economic independence was often a long-term goal. The chapter charts both communities from the time of their arrival in the 1960s through to the 1990s. It highlights the initial differences between Turkish Gastarbeiter in Bremen who adhered to the stringent and restrictive patterns of the guest-worker rotation system and Newcastle’s Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi immigrants who enjoyed economic mobility and aspiration from the outset.

in Foreigners, minorities and integration
The housing sector: owner-occupation and ethnic neighbourhoods
Sarah Hackett

This chapter seeks to go beyond the historically and historiographically insistent claims of ‘poor quality council housing’ and ‘ghettoisation’, and highlights the often neglected role that immigrants themselves play in moulding their own residential patterns. It asserts that whilst a significant proportion of both cities’ Muslim immigrant communities have traditionally resided in ethnic neighbourhoods, this has not necessarily been the result of a lack of integration. Whilst Newcastle’s immigrants attained residential autonomy from as early as the 1960s, those in Bremen were only permitted to move onto the local housing market after having first experienced the confinement of their respective employer in the form of company barracks. As time passed, however, the housing traits of both minorities merged in that they often chose to live in established ethnic areas and in their own properties. The chapter also exposes some of the difficulties encountered, including overcrowding and discrimination.

in Foreigners, minorities and integration
The three Rs – race, relations and arithmetic
Sarah Hackett

This chapter highlights the manner in which Newcastle and Bremen’s local governments addressed the education of ethnic minority children within two very different national immigration frameworks. It exposes the types of policies and measures that both introduced in order to cater for and promote the integration of their respective migrant pupils. It asserts that neither city has witnessed the problems and obstacles that it has often been argued have been present in other British and German cities. The topics discussed include English and German language acquisition, mother-tongue language classes, educational attainment and the dispersal of ethnic minority pupils in schools in both cities.

in Foreigners, minorities and integration
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Comparing communities, challenging conceptions
Sarah Hackett

This chapter addresses the key arguments, debates and themes that run throughout the book. It asserts that Muslim immigrants in Newcastle and Bremen have historically performed better in the employment, housing and education sectors than is often assumed to have been the case in Britain and Germany more widely. It offers some explanations for why this this might be the case, including the relatively small sizes of both cities’ communities and the distinct regional identity that it has long been argued is present in both cities. Furthermore, the chapter questions both the long-term ramifications of Britain and Germany’s post-war immigration frameworks and challenges the notion that Islam has played an overwhelming role in the integration process.

in Foreigners, minorities and integration
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Muslim integration in Britain - a theoretical and analytical framework
Sarah Hackett

The introduction offers an insight into what is a multidisciplinary, sizeable and vibrant academic literature on Muslims in post-war Britain. It outlines the main arguments and theories regarding migration, integration, racism, multiculturalism and Muslim communities in more rural, peripheral and non-metropolitan areas. It presents and explains the study’s aims, rationale and methodology, and introduces the key arguments and themes that run throughout the book through which it makes a contribution to academic scholarship. Finally, it offers an overview of the book’s source material and structure, as well as synopses of the chapters that follow.

in Britain’s rural Muslims
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Diverse Muslims, unexplored communities
Sarah Hackett

This chapter introduces the county of Wiltshire. It offers an insight into the county’s intrinsic rurality, its economic history and political structure, and the reasons why it constitutes a pertinent case study for an assessment of Muslim migrant integration in rural Britain across the post-1960s period. It provides an overview of the county’s history of migration and its previously unexplored Muslim migrant communities, including the Moroccan community in and around Trowbridge, and Bangladeshis, Pakistanis and Turks in Bradford on Avon, Calne, Devizes, Melksham and Salisbury. In doing so, it reveals the inherent and multifaceted heterogeneity that emerges when studying Muslims in Wiltshire, and it introduces the small body of existing research that this book builds upon.

in Britain’s rural Muslims
The early years, 1960s to 1976
Sarah Hackett

This chapter addresses local government policy in Wiltshire between the early 1960s and the implementation of the Race Relations Act 1976. It charts local policy through the arrival of the first waves of post-war immigration to the county, and offers an insight into how policymakers perceived and addressed the integration, accommodation and experiences of Muslim migrants. Despite persistent claims that more rural areas in Britain shied away from devising policies and strategies due to their numerically small immigrant communities, a range of measures were introduced in Wiltshire, especially in the areas of education, the resettlement of Ugandan Asians and community relations. Furthermore, this chapter also exposes how Wiltshire’s local authority went some way towards considering the religious affiliations and needs of its Muslim communities specifically during this period.

in Britain’s rural Muslims