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Orangewomen in Canada, c. 1890–1930
D. A. J. MacPherson

prolonged crisis over self-government in Ireland. By 1927, the LOBA could boast of 23,665 members across every province in Canada, comparing favourably to approximately 70,000 Orangemen in the Dominion.30 However, the heartland and birthplace of the LOBA, Ontario, continued to have the greatest membership, comprising over a third of the total number of lodges (see Table 9.1). Echoing the findings of Charlotte Wildman in her chapter in this volume on Irish-Catholic women in interwar Liverpool, the work carried out by members of the LOBA was often highly gendered

in Women and Irish diaspora identities
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Laurence Lux-Sterritt

, patronage, and political conspiracy: English nuns and the restoration’, The Historical Journal 43:1 (2000), 1–23. 25 Caroline Bowden, ‘“For the glory of God”: a study of the education of English catholic women in convents in Flanders and France in the first half of the seventeenth century’, Paedagogica Historica, Supplementary Series, Gent CSHP, vol. V (1999), 77–95 and ‘The abbess and Mrs Brown: Lady Mary Knatchbull and royalist politics in Flanders in the late 1650s’, Recusant History 24:3 (1999), 288–308. 26 Caroline Bowden, ‘Community space and cultural

in English Benedictine nuns in exile in the seventeenth century
Laurence Lux-Sterritt

the Earle of Bristoll’, became a boarder for a yearly pension of 400 livres tournois.31 Some houses even opened their boarding houses to Catholic women in precarious situations or in need of spiritual retreat. We saw how the fate of English convents was closely linked to that of English Catholics at home. During the unrest of the Civil Wars, such boarders sought refuge at the convents and brought with them a certain prestige, rekindling public interest in the houses and attracting wealthy visitors and patrons as a consequence. For instance, the former Duchess of

in English Benedictine nuns in exile in the seventeenth century
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‘Un paese tutto poetico’ – Byron in Italy, Italy in Byron
Alan Rawes and Diego Saglia

. Detailing and exploring Byron’s experience of Italian friars, priests, cardinal legates, a pope and, most importantly, Italian Catholic women, Beatty suggests that, in Catholic Italy, ‘spiritually, Byron found something sensible to grasp at’. Ranging across Byron’s poetic career, Beatty sees the poet begin as a John Knox in response to Catholicism but progressively become not only a thinker of ‘theological precision’ but also a ‘sympathetic outsider and even insider’ to Italian Catholic experience. Rather than approaching Byron’s much-​ discussed engagement with the early

in Byron and Italy
Michael Carter-Sinclair

erected in the grounds of the parish church. 74 Hohe Wand became a pilgrimage site for parishioners from Grinzing, but for the dead of their church as much as a memorial for Dollfuss. 75 But the church offered more than occasional opportunities for shared grief and comfort. Grinzing was the centre of an active community, where groups such as Catholic Action, as well as a Catholic men’s association, an association to provide children with hot meals through winter, a Catholic women’s association and others met on a regular basis. These groups helped to tie believers

in Vienna’s ‘respectable’ antisemites
Caitriona Clear

in foreign parts. They made up only a very small proportion of emigrants, male or female, but they are still part of the diaspora. There was also missionary emigration, of Irish Catholic women in particular, to convents in North America, India and Australia, ‘several thousand’ to the USA alone.26 Nuns, many of them Irish originally, came to Ireland on recruiting drives. As early as 1840 Irish Presentation Sisters established a convent in Madras, India. Sometimes religious emigration was chain migration, as aunts followed nieces (and possibly nephews their uncles

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
Angela McCarthy

out of the Cork workhouse, some of whom are notoriously loose’. 95 Richard Davis’ assessment of the situation included recognition that while such alarms might mirror concerns in Australia of single Catholic women marrying Protestant men, poor reception arrangements facilitated the mingling of the sexes and allegations of inappropriate behaviour. 96 Such charges mainly arose during the 1870s when

in Scottishness and Irishness in New Zealand since 1840
Aaron Edwards

soldiers onto the streets of Northern Ireland as a preventive measure to quell inter-communal disturbances between Catholic nationalists and Protestant unionists. The troops were initially welcomed by the minority Catholic community after the souring of its relationship with the RUC, despite later attempts by republicans to play down the significance of the Catholic women who offered them tea and sandwiches.13 While the British State had clear responsibilities upon the outbreak of loyalist and republican violence, London instead chose to continue its support for the

in The Northern Ireland Troubles in Britain
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Orangeism, Protestantism, anthropology
Joseph Webster

explained, and they sat for long periods without buying drinks, earning the hall a meagre income. Worse still, he said, two Roman Catholic women had recently started coming along; while the pensioners merely used the hall as a venue, and were thus technically nothing to do with the Orange Order – he found their presence galling. Waiting for him to finish, I stood in the smaller front bar where local Orangemen congregated to drink, and looked at the now familiar Orange iconography covering the walls – King Billy on his horse, Rangers Football Club at Ibrox, official images

in The religion of Orange politics
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Maternal welfare and child health, 1920–40
Lindsey Earner-Byrne

sacrifice their religion for the welfare of their children. ‘I love my Catholic religion,’ Mrs J., a widowed mother of three, wrote in 1935 begging for assistance and pleading to the Archbishop, ‘don’t drive me to the Church of England with my 3 orphans.’172 In working-class Ireland, ‘good mothering’ required religious tenacity and social ingenuity: when children were ill-clad and underfed, principles offered cold comfort. Not surprisingly in this climate, mixed marriages elicited considerable attention. Catholic women who married Protestants were rarely denied assistance

in Mother and child