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Bryan Fanning

provided a viable substitute symbolic system for the dying world of Gaelic culture.3 Around the same time the Catholic Church became the focus of a project of organisational and doctrinal modernisation through what became referred to as the devotional revolution. Although the majority of the population were Catholics, the nature of their religiosity had gradually shifted from reflecting a society where religious orthodoxies coexisted with popular supernaturalism to a reformed ultramontane Catholicism (which emphasised the authority of the papacy) characterised by a

in Racism and social change in the Republic of Ireland
Cara Delay

accompany their wives’, writes Taylor, ‘but it was almost always the woman who was represented as the instigator’.9 As Taylor suggests, Marian apparitions were essential to the creation of a modern feminised Irish Catholicism. Through Marianism, Irish women emerged as central actors in popular religion. By the mid-nineteenth century, a uniquely Irish devotion to the Virgin Mary was flourishing. Irish Catholics, for example, celebrated May as Mary’s month. Each May, ordinary Catholics decorated Marian shrines, and pilgrims to these shrines made their way through towns

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
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The story of a voice
Emer Nolan

2 Sinéad O’Connor: the story of a voice 50 Five Irish Women Sinéad O’Connor is surely Ireland’s best-known woman artist. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, her startling appearance and the extraordinary vocal performances on her first two albums brought her huge fame as an international rock star. From the beginning, she combined an ambiguous sexual appeal, a distinctive clarity of voice and an aura of intense personal anguish. Although she became an early icon of the Celtic Tiger era, her attitudes towards Ireland, Catholicism and the music business were at

in Five Irish women
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The Good' of Orange exceptionalism
Joseph Webster

ago is also strongly present among Scottish Orangemen today. And as Buckley rightly points out, the importance of such exceptionalist logic does not depend on whether it was taken to offer historical or allegorical truths, but rather depends upon how it provides ‘object lessons’ (ibid.: 24) about ‘a fixed relationship … between Catholicism and Protestantism’ (ibid.: 14) via stories about ‘the difficulties faced by God’s chosen people when dealing with heathens, foreigners and other villains’ (ibid.). Indeed, whether or not one took the claim that British Protestants

in The religion of Orange politics
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Church and state in The Bell
Niall Carson

the de Valera government, the time for waiting for change had passed, and more immediate action was required. To complicate this picture, the Roman Catholic hierarchy had united with the forces of large cattle ranchers and industrialists to keep the truly democratic voice of Irish Catholicism suppressed. These combined forces, he argued in The Bothy Fire, had blocked the potential for change in the de Valera administration and rendered impotent the working poor, on whose support de Valera was elected: ‘The Catholic Fascism of Cardinal McRory [sic] is the deadly

in Rebel by vocation
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Laurence Lux-Sterritt

governance, English convents were also dependent upon the circumstances of English Catholicism for their recruitment. Their social profile was only slightly lower than that of Spanish, Italian or French convents, since most nuns came from the gentry or lower echelons of the nobility; yet in terms of economic affluence and financial wealth, English houses lagged far behind Continental nunneries, because of the hardships imposed upon recusants by penal laws at home, which compounded with the heavy losses suffered by those who supported the royalist cause during the Civil

in English Benedictine nuns in exile in the seventeenth century
S. Karly Kehoe

elements were thought to be having on society and private Constructing a system of education 111 families.5 Church authorities in Scotland realised that securing Catholicism in Scotland would require the establishment of a viable system of education and that those best able to handle the responsibility were the religious communities whose members were equipped to undertake the practical work associated with running schools. The sisters, nuns, priests and brothers would pave the way for widespread religious change by exposing children to an obedient, loyal and

in Creating a Scottish Church
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Tom Inglis

parcel of maintaining ideological coherence and solidarity. We may no longer believe that we are an island of saints and scholars, exporting a unique brand of Catholicism around the world. But we still like to think of ourselves as different. Perhaps this is what the Irish soccer supporters were trying to do, to export Irish bonhomie. We are able to think differently when it comes to defeat and loss. We have the gift of the gab, a unique sense of humour and fun, and an ability to help others join with us in having ‘great craic’. Maybe this is the new story we tell

in Are the Irish different?
John Privilege

4 Evolution and docility of mind The new science The nineteenth century was theologically fraught not just for Catholicism but for Christianity in general. As the Church struggled to face the challenges thrown up by modern science, Logue maintained a simple faith. Along with a commitment to the idea of clerical control over education, he retained an orthodox view of the role of the clergy in Ireland. The bishops stood as guardians over the faith and morals of their flocks and it was the duty of the priesthood to hand down the faith and traditions of the Church

in Michael Logue and the Catholic Church in Ireland, 1879–1925
Bryan Fanning

institutions of the country.1 Before independence, Irish social policy had been shaped by British legislation as well as by Catholicism. The Church sought tight control over education and health, areas seen as crucial to the inter-generational transmission of faith and Catholic morality. The role of the state had expanded from the introduction the Poor Relief Act (1838) to include responsibility for unemployment benefits and old age pensions. Both the Church and the state came to administer demarcated areas of social policy. Catholicism aside, the main ideological influence

in Irish adventures in nation-building