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Exhibitions and festivals
Jeffrey Richards

One of the great cultural phenomena of the age of Empire was the exhibition. From the Great Exhibition in 1851 to the Festival of Britain in 1951, these extravaganzas were an integral part of the cultural life of the nation, attracting bigger and bigger audiences. The Great Exhibition of 1851 attracted over 6 million visitors; the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886, 5.5 million; the

in Imperialism and music
Emigration and the spread of Irish religious influence
Sarah Roddy

5 The spiritual empire at home: emigration and the spread of Irish religious influence The idea that mass migration from nineteenth-century Ireland created an Irish ‘empire’ has had enduring appeal. It proved a rare source of pride during depressed periods in independent Ireland, particularly the 1940s and 1950s, and provided the basis of an evocative title for at least one popular version of the Irish diaspora’s story as late as the turn of this century.1 In the latter context especially, ‘Irish empire’ can appear simply a wry play on a far more common and not

in Population, providence and empire
Sunil S. Amrith

European emigration; more recently, other routes of movement, both free and unfree, have featured more prominently. This chapter aims to reflect on the circulation of peoples, ideas and cultures across empires, and to probe the challenge that the study of diasporas poses for writing imperial histories. Like the Series as a whole, this chapter focuses primarily on the British empire, but not exclusively so; diasporas

in Writing imperial histories
Author: Martin Thomas

Between 1940 and 1945 the French empire divided against itself. This book presents the events in the French empire in the 1940s, and traces the period of wartime French imperial division, setting it within the wider international politics of the Second World War. It discusses the collapse of France's metropolitan forces during the second week of June 1940, which became a calamity for the French empire. The final breakdown of the Anglo-French alliance during the latter half of 1940 was played out on the African continent, in heavily defended French imperial territory of vital strategic importance to Allied communications. The Vichy empire lost ground to that of the Charles de Gaulle's Free French, something which has often been attributed to the attraction of the Gaullist mystique and the spirit of resistance in the colonies. Indo-China was bound to be considered a special case by the Vichy regime and the Free French movement. Between late 1940 and 1945, the French administration in Indo-China was forced by circumstances to plough a distinctive furrow in order to survive intact. The book discusses the St Pierre and Miquelon affair, and the invasion of Madagascar, and deals with the issue of nationalism in North Africa, before and after the Operation Torch. The contradiction between the French commitment to constitutional reform and the few colonial subjects actually affected by it was echoed in the wartime treatment of France's colonial forces.

Ashley Jackson

Historians have long been aware of the significance of imperial themes in British culture, and of their visual representation as experienced by ordinary people in a variety of conscious and subconscious forms. Images conveying ideas and messages about empire, the non-European world and the relationship between Britons and non-Europeans appeared on a diverse range of media

in Exhibiting the empire
Britain and Australia 1900 to the present
Author: Neville Kirk

Explanations of working-class politics in Australia and Britain have traditionally been heavily rooted in domestic 'bread and butter', socio-economic factors, including the much-debated issue of social class. 'Traditional' and 'revisionist' accounts have greatly advanced our knowledge and understanding of labour movements in general and labour politics in particular. This book offers a pathbreaking comparative and trans-national study of the neglected influences of nation, empire and race. The study is about the development and electoral fortunes of the Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the British Labour Party (BLP) from their formative years of the 1900s to the elections of 2010. Based upon extensive primary and secondary source-based research in Britain and Australia over several years, the book makes a new and original contribution to the fields of labour, imperial and 'British world' history. It offers the challenging conclusion that the forces of nation, empire and race exerted much greater influence upon Labour politics in both countries than suggested by 'traditionalists' and 'revisionists' alike. Labour sought a more democratic, open and just society, but, unlike the ALP, it was not a serious contender for political and social power. In both countries, the importance attached to the politics of loyalism is partly related to questions of place and space. In both Australia and Britain the essential strength of the emergent Labour parties was rooted in the trade unions. The book also presents three core arguments concerning the influences of nation, empire, race and class upon Labour's electoral performance.

Stuart Hannabuss

were preoccupied with as far as specific forms of writing were concerned and (b) what they thought appropriate for children to read in terms of factual information and attitudes. In doing this, we are able also to see the stances which the writers adopted. Such stances were in part what they chose to reveal about their views, say, about concepts of empire, missions or slavery during the nineteenth

in Imperialism and juvenile literature
Interactions and influences, 1650–1830
Editor: H. V. Bowen

Written by leading specialists in the field, this book is a collection of essays that explore economic, social, cultural, political, and religious interactions between Wales and the empire. It discusses the many relationships that developed between Wales and the British overseas empire between 1650 and 1830. The book looks at Welsh influences on the emergence of 'British' imperialism, as well as the impact that the empire had upon the development of Wales itself. Using the West Indian and East Indian connection, the book quantifies different interactions that occurred between Wales and the overseas empire. It highlights how expansion in Asia served to draw Wales and the Welsh into the domestic and overseas worlds of the London-based East India Company. The book also explores the aspects of the impact that expansion had upon the development of the Welsh economy. The focus then turns to the Atlantic-facing parts of the Welsh economy. How British expansion in the Atlantic basin opened up opportunities for people from Wales to take a prominent place in international communities of religious thought and belief is shown. Participation in an expanding spiritual empire brought like-minded individuals together in transoceanic networks and this engagement helped to shape the emergence of Welsh evangelical identities. Finally, Welsh interactions with the nascent British empire in India are analysed. Much work remains to be done if Wales is to be fully integrated into the British imperial historiography and the empire is to be afforded a central role in the writing of Welsh history.

Rhetoric, fragments – and beyond?
Neil Evans

Empire has not figured prominently in Welsh historiography. A key problem is that empire does not fit with the self-images of many Welsh people. There is a preference for regarding the Welsh as a colonised people, rather than a colonising one. The literary and cultural critic Ned Thomas, writing in 1971, sets out the issue: It is better in the end to belong to an oppressed group than an oppressing one. The Welsh identity is dearer to me precisely because it lacks the strain of

in Wales and the British overseas empire
Salutations from a Dutch queen’s supporters in a British South Africa
Susie Protschky

the nineteenth century, Dutch monarchs were receiving hundreds of ceremoniously worded, illuminated greetings that incorporated the term oorkonde in their text from subjects in the Netherlands and around the world. 2 Other European monarchs with empires received similar missives from their supporters. The medium was favoured by groups of people to collectively present themselves to and

in Crowns and colonies