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Kelly-Kate Pease

levels that can both complement each other, as well as work at cross-purposes. This introductory chapter explores what international human rights are, why they are controversial, and why diplomacy is necessary for the actualization of human rights. It also explains the narrow distinctions between human rights and humanitarianism; discusses the different kinds of actors involved in multilevel human rights and humanitarian diplomacy; and outlines basic strategies and tools used to promote and protect human rights and humanitarian principles through diplomacy

in Human rights and humanitarian diplomacy
Silvia Salvatici

humanitarianism is quite complex. Following the biographies of its most prominent central characters, particularly Dunant and Moynier, is a useful way of sketching all the aspects of the picture. Some of these lead us back to the transformations we saw underway in previous decades, such as the development of a new ‘culture of sensibility’ or the extension of Western charity’s range of action. The emergence of a philanthropie militaire – as defined by Gustave Moynier and Luis Appia, the Swiss military doctor and another member of the ‘Committee of Five’ 3 – was then tied to a

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
Silvia Salvatici

twentieth century attempted to oppose the persistence of more or less hidden forms of forced labour. 5 This is not the place either to go over again the global history of the struggle against slavery, or to analyse in detail the rich collection of studies carried out up to today, but thanks to these we can at any rate try to answer a crucial question for the purposes of our argument: why is the anti-slavery movement considered an important component in the archaeology of humanitarianism? The main reasons can be summarised in the following terms. In the first

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
The case of Rosemary Taylor, Elaine Moir and Margaret Moses
Joy Damousi

-to-day humanitarian work was consistently dangerous, chaotic, exhausting and ad hoc. By exploring this aspect of the activities of these three key actors, this chapter seeks to offer a distinctive contribution to histories of humanitarianism in the postwar period. Throughout the twentieth century, humanitarian activists have invariably been a part of a group or institution that has framed their actions and defined their objectives and

in Humanitarianism, empire and transnationalism, 1760–1995
Human rights and humanitarianism in the 1980s
Roland Burke

minimalistic posture of what eminent historian Samuel Moyn described as the ‘human rights breakthrough’ interacted with the vestigial endeavour for international redistributionism across the late 1970s and 1980s. By the end of the 1980s it was a reconfigured minimalism that proved ascendant, drawing the ambitious vision of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights closer to its older sibling, humanitarianism

in Humanitarianism, empire and transnationalism, 1760–1995
Jonathan Benthall

). The president said that ‘the new zakat committees are like a pool of water’ and that one drop of ink would pollute the whole pool. The drop of ink was anybody with links to Hamas. The following chapter will compare many different types of purity seeking. It is itself an attempt to clarify the muddy no man’s land between religion and humanitarianism. I assume as

in Islamic charities and Islamic humanism in troubled times
Silvia Salvatici

In the period when most of the international programmes were dedicated to development, war relief certainly did not disappear from humanitarianism’s sphere of action, as we have seen in aid operations for the civilians fleeing armed conflicts in the Middle East, Asia and North Africa between the 1940s and 1950s. In this area of intervention, new parties established themselves that identified in humanitarian commitment a tool with which to claim the independence of the colonial territories or to assert the full sovereignty of the newly constituted

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
From starving children to satirical saviours
Rachel Tavernor

The development of social media sites, such as Facebook (founded 2004) and Twitter (founded 2006), has changed humanitarian non-governmental organisations’ (NGOs) media practices and subsequently altered the ways that supporters and publics are engaged. 1 This chapter focuses on a recent movement for NGOs to humour humanitarianism to achieve visibility on social networks

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Education in the British Empire, 1830–1910
Author: Felicity Jensz

Nineteenth-century evangelical Protestant missionary groups commonly assumed that they were the most apt providers of education to non-Europeans in British colonies. Christian schooling was deemed imperative for modernising societies to withstand secularising forces. This significant study examines this assumption by drawing on key moments in the development of missionary education from the 1830s to the beginning of the twentieth century. The book is the first to survey the changing ideologies behind establishing mission schools across the spectrum of the British Empire. It examines the Negro Education Grant in the West Indies, the Aborigines Select Committee (British Settlements), missionary conferences in 1860 and 1910 as well as drawing on local voices and contexts from Southern Africa, British India and Sri Lanka to demonstrate the changing expectations for, engagement with and ideologies circulating around mission schools resulting from government policies and local responses. By the turn of the twentieth century, many colonial governments had encroached upon missionary schooling to such an extent that the symbiosis that had allowed missionary groups autonomy at the beginning of the century had morphed into an entanglement that secularised mission schools. The spread of ‘Western modernity’ through mission schools in British colonies affected local cultures and societies. It also threatened Christian religious moral authority, leading missionary societies by the World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh in 1910 to question the ambivalent legacy of missionary schooling, and to fear for the morality and religious sensibilities of their pupils, and indeed for morality within Britain and the Empire.

Offline and online games, branding and humanitarianism at the Roskilde Festival
Lene Bull Christiansen and Mette Fog Olwig

In humanitarianism the popularising of causes, and the use of celebrities and media culture to do so, is a rising phenomenon. Academic writing on humanitarianism, however, tends to criticise the popular, especially when it is mediated through celebrities. 1 Such critiques often intersect with disapproval of the growing collaboration or crossbranding between humanitarian

in Global humanitarianism and media culture