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Amikam Nachmani

growing erratic, and where Iran, once the bulwark of Western defence in the Middle East, toppled the Shah and unleashed a torrent of hostility towards the West. These developments, when added to Turkey’s oft-expressed commitment to Western values, something not linked to one political personality or another, meant small wonder that Washington was eager, when necessary, to rush to its ally’s aid. 4 The end of the cold war changed all this. Like other countries that had been in the forefront of the battle against communism, Turkey found that its

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Raymond Hinnebusch

conduct rational or effective foreign policies. Policy tended to take one of two paths: either rhetoric meant to appease domestic opposition or efforts to secure outside security guarantees against it. By contrast, Turkey, Israel and Iran, more the products of indigenous state-builders than foreign imperiums, enjoyed the greater legitimacy that made possible more (although by no means wholly) inclusive states. In Turkey and Israel, the combination of democratic legitimacy and institutionalisation gave leaders the autonomy in foreign policy making needed to pursue

in The international politics of the Middle East
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

7 billion cubic meters of gas from Russia as compared to only 5 billion from Algeria and Nigeria, its other two primary gas sources. This was far too much. Not wanting to become totally dependent on Moscow, which in light of the various areas of conflict between them, was simply too dangerous, Turkey began looking for other gas suppliers. Hence the 1996 Iranian–Turkish gas deal, followed by the 1999 Turkameni gas agreement. Turkey also decided to diversify its energy resources, buying more electricity from its immediate neighbors. However, Blue Stream threatened

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Abstract only
Sam Rohdie

origini’, ‘The Voyage’ / ‘Il viaggio’, ‘Across Europe’ / ‘Attraverso l’Europa’. ‘Le origini’ takes place in Iran. It begins with Fire, the burning off of natural gas as a by-product of oil drilling. The burning off is at the top of towers in a mountainous terrain. The gas is set alight by gun-flares at night, like a pistol shot followed by a mini explosion at ignition. The film opens with the gas burned off, a coup de théâtre. The burning is part of the extraction process, but the visual effect seems a fantasy like the story of Aladdin and his magic lamp in One Thousand

in Film modernism
Chris Miller

Hellyer also says, ‘secular notions of how people should be governed have become entrenched in all Muslim countries and communities’. I believe that this could be put in a different way. Many of the laws governing Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Iran have nothing secular about them (one could turn to the laws of certain states of the United States for Christian examples of similar kind).3 But the important point might be that the countries listed are all nation states and that the secular administrative functions that they perform (or fail to perform) are needed in modern life

in Religion and rights
Zeynep Devrim Gürsel

editor (Jen) and an art director (Mary) working on a photo essay about Iran. A veteran photographer had been sent to do a story on youth in Iran. Mary, the art director, was pleased with the story because she considered it a well-​ rounded portrait of the country. Sarah, the text editor, explained Mary’s statement for me:  ‘everything from couples stealing kisses to hundreds of fanatics’. There were in fact photographs of large numbers of people praying, a couple kissing on a hilltop, young boys airdancing in the mountains, girls in school and girls in an outdoor

in Image operations
Open Access (free)
Simon Mabon

months after the abdication of the Shah of Shahs, Iranians voted to establish an Islamic Republic on the basis of principles espoused by Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini who was later installed as Supreme Leader of the new state. Khomeini had returned to Iran on 1 February where he was greeted by an estimated crowd of five million who had grown angry at the Shah’s regime. Over the course of the protests, political opposition to the Shah coalesced around Khomeini’s vision, some more willing than others amid allegations that the revolution was hijacked by Khomenei, but

in Houses built on sand
Andrew Teverson

book has nothing to do with what I wrote’. 38 The worst was yet to come, however, when the Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran issued a fatwa (a decree) that demanded the execution of Rushdie and his publishers. The fatwa was read on Radio Tehran on Valentine’s Day 1989. ‘In the name of God Almighty’, Khomeini declared: I would like to inform all the intrepid Muslims in the world that the author of the book entitled The Satanic Verses , which has been compiled, printed and published in opposition to Islam, the Prophet and the Koran, as well as

in Salman Rushdie
Abstract only
Gerasimos Gerasimos

(specialising in books on Chinese politics that are not available in the People's Republic), have sparked concern for state-led renditions and contributed to the rise of Hong Kong's Anti-Extradition Law Amendment Bill Movement. But, as Chapter 4 on North African practices suggested, repression extends well beyond violence: a number of countries, including Syria and Iran, have employed digital surveillance of expatriate activities while also threatening their well-being or the safety of their relatives and friends back home (Moss 2016b ; Michaelsen 2018

in Migration diplomacy in the Middle East and North Africa
Shohei Sato

. This chapter starts by introducing a new British government, and then examines the July negotiations in detail, before going on to the final days of the British withdrawal from the Gulf. The Conservative volte-face In the spring of 1970, whilst Iran’s renouncing of its claim over the ‘14th province’ was cheered on the streets of Bahrain, the British public was preparing for a

in Britain and the formation of the Gulf States