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Robert Boyce

Pétain prior to joining the Resistance had aroused a storm of controversy when it became the subject of a recent best-seller.55 Until the end of his life Mitterrand betrayed a deep ambivalence about Vichy’s record. In contrast, Jacques Chirac, the Gaullist leader and Mitterrand’s successor as president of France, had issued a forthright apology for crimes committed by Vichy, in a speech two years before the trial, marking the fifty-third anniversary of the first mass arrest of Jews in Paris in the rafle du Vel d’Hiv. Reference to the speech appeared repeatedly inside

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
Open Access (free)
The European transformation of the French model
Andrea Szukala

protection ranked second among the voters’ preferences.9 After the election of Jacques Chirac in 1995, the newly installed Juppé government (1995–97) finally had to take a painful U-turn by launching rigorous budgetary cuts.10 This abrupt policy change in the middle of 1995 made the costs of the introduction of the Euro particularly manifest in the eyes of French citizens.11 Since then the French inclination towards the Union has again dropped to only 46 per cent of persons stating that it was ‘a good thing for France’ in autumn 1996.12 Anticipating further implementation

in Fifteen into one?
Chris Pearson

military activity, and seeks to defuse civilian demands for access to military land.7 Much of the critique of military environmentalism holds true for France. Most notably, President Jacques Chirac relaunched France’s underground Pacific Ocean nuclear testing programme in 1995, to global environmentalist dismay, in the same year as the Ministry of Defence signed an accord with the Ministry of the Environment.8 Within France itself, the military uses the existence of rare flora and fauna on its sites to justify its ownership of land. It has frequently coopted the language

in Mobilizing nature
Regarde les hommes tomber, Un prophète and Un héros très discret
Gemma King

perception of the Resistance as a widespread movement that defined the French position and ‘spirit’ under the Occupation, in reality only between 2 and 3 per cent of French citizens participated in the Resistance during the war. The film’s source text was released three years before Jacques Chirac’s historic speech of 16 July 1995, on the fifty-third anniversary of the Rafle du Vélodrome d

in Jacques Audiard
The decade of the conte de L’Estaque
Joseph Mai

television, and Guédiguian and his actors were suddenly appearing on award shows and being interviewed in media outlets. To some degree, the film’s success can be attributed to a shifting political environment, two years into Jacques Chirac’s first term, in which Guédiguian’s message of philia and micro-​revolution touched a nerve. Chirac won that election in part by exploiting an ambiguous   60 60  Robert Guédiguian discourse on ‘la fracture sociale’ (‘social fracture’), which led, after his election, to reinforcement of the anti-​immigration Pasqua laws with the Debré

in Robert Guédiguian
Evidence for supportive coverage and the elite-driven model
Piers Robinson, Peter Goddard, Katy Parry, Craig Murray, and Philip M. Taylor

smaller proportion of press photographs (0.3%) contained any reference to WMD. Television pictures of journalists reporting with gas masks on were perhaps the most striking visuals of this kind. For example, on 20 March, Sky News interrupted other stories to cut live to its Kuwait correspondent in a gas mask as air raid sirens blared in the background. The value of such images in lending credibility to proponents of the invasion was not lost on one of the anchors in this Sky bulletin, who commented: ‘One wonders . . . if Jacques Chirac is watching these pictures, of

in Pockets of resistance
Anglo-American ironies under Clinton, Blair, and Bush
David Ryan

/11 Bush wrote that he realized that the three busts ‘all depicted wartime leaders. I certainly didn’t have that in mind when I chose them.’ 50 Blair decided that 9/11 was a pivotal moment in world history and it was important for the British to be by the side of the Americans in this period of calamity. Both the German chancellor Gerhard Schröder and French president Jacques Chirac also reacted quickly. Schröder told the Bundestag that the country’s ‘full solidarity’ would be exercised. Chirac was the first foreign leader in New York a week after the attacks, where he

in Culture matters
Niilo Kauppi

regional political organisations, etc.) and top-level politicians (former ministers, for instance). Although for some time strongly represented in the European Parliament, top French politicians such as Jacques Chirac, Laurent Fabius and Valéry Giscard d'Estaing have not been active in the European Parliament (see Jacobs et al. 1990, 45). Usually, chief candidates give up their seat in the European Parliament after having been elected. Undoubtedly, this indicates a weak level of involvement and investment in European affairs, though French politicians have nonetheless

in Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union
David Brown

assassination attempt on the then French President, Jacques Chirac, in July 2002), the report stretches the qualifications for inclusion, by making reference to racist and anti-Semitic movements more generally. The credibility of both Europol and the EU more generally is not aided by such developments, which seem to prioritise the perception of ‘commonality’ (and the provision of an ever more substantial report – it has grown significantly in length since the first report in January 2002) over the attainment of accuracy. The gathering storm: the scale of Islamist terrorism

in The European Union, counter terrorism and police co-operation, 1992–2007
Uwe Puetter

the re-election of French president Jacques Chirac he and his supporters declared several times that they did not feel bound by the commitment of EU leaders to achieve balanced budgets by 2004. Some Eurogroup Figure 5.3 procedure CEC adopts recommendation January CEC tells the group situation is serious discusses reaction February decides on the CEC recommendation The pattern of interaction between informal discussions and formal decisions in the context of the early warning December concerns are raised at an early stage t 9:47 AM Commission 14

in The Eurogroup