Diptych and virtual diptych in Marvell, Milton, Du Bellay and others
the chance and opportunity to excerpt some lines in French by that most illustrious royal poet Pierre de Ronsard, from the Franciade , a French epic which is clearly comparable to Homer’s Iliad and Virgil’s Aeneid . I also wish to make them available to be read by the readers of my commentaries in the Latin translation of Jean Dorat, royal poet and a man endowed with rare learning, so that foreign nations may understand the existence and quality of the geniuses produced by our France, and the extent to which literary works and liberaleducation flourish amongst
was himself sceptical about the degree to which individuals who had not
benefited from a rigorous liberaleducation could govern themselves
effectively; but contemporary theorists seem much more willing to place
their faith in the materialist spur to the development of responsible
self-government. A focus upon the economic rewards of stable democracies
avoids the Victorian insistence that democracy could only survive within
which have, of late years, been introduced into all the sciences
connected with the art of medicine. The progress of botany and
natural history, and the wonderful discoveries in chemistry,
have now extended the sphere of these useful branches beyond the
mere purpose of the physician, and have rendered a competent
knowledge of them highly interesting to every man of liberal
of nature over culture, and of science over Arnoldian values (truth and beauty). Nature should lead men, and culture itself, too long locked up by the ‘Levites in charge of the ark of culture and monopolists of liberaleducation’, should be transformed to reflect better the new priorities given by ‘the definite order’ of nature (Huxley, 1881 : 3, cited in Hultberg, 1997 : 196).
Knocking the Two Cultures debate out of its place in this line of succession can be productive. It enables a different kind of auditing of the arguments. Doing this
growing presence of women, Dalit students and students from historically
marginalised north-eastern states is challenging the hegemonies of androcentric, patriarchal
and Brahmanical academic structures on which liberaleducation has been based. In several
movements, like Pinjra Tod (Break the Cage), female students have been asserting their right
to equal access to libraries, laboratories, canteens and hostels. 12 Dalit students, too, are battling for access to
institutional spaces. After Hyderabad Central University suspended
an inspiring persona in the reform of university education, which he viewed as the key to social progress (‘LiberalEducation in Universities’, Lectures and Essays , 1870), and from the 1860s promoted women’s access to Cambridge. He taught at Maurice’s Working Men’s College, associated with Emily Davies’s campaigns (he was a close friend of her brother, John Llewelyn Davies [II, 7]), supported Ann Clough’s North of England Council, lectured girls at Hitchin Girls’ School (1873–1881), and involved himself in the creation of Newnham College in 1875, with Henry
A controversial commonwealth
Censorship, poetry and Fletcher’s later career
A man of spirit and understanding, helped by learning and liberaleducation, can
hardly endure a tyrannicall government.
Giles Fletcher, Of the Russe Common Wealth (1591)
The specific context of the late 1580s and early 1590s provided an environment
ripe for a sensitised reaction against Fletcher’s Of the Russe Common Wealth,
which could have been read as encouraging criticism of sacral monarchy and
unreformed religion, and engaging with the particularly prickly issue of
, broadcast between 1951 and 1962. These programmes helped to
forge links between academics and the BBC and to harness the power of
broadcasting to the values of liberaleducation. Many of the contributors
were adult education tutors, and the style and content of the programmes
had about them ‘something of the early university class tutorial movement’.
Discussions were designed to educate and speakers included a number of
people who later came to be associated with the OU, including Harold
Wilson, Raymond Williams and Asa Briggs.231 The Midlands Region of the
of these concessions, both the leadership and the UILGB put
their full support behind Churchill’s candidature. The loss of the seat to
The Irish Parliamentary Party at Westminster
the Conservative candidate – albeit by a margin of only 429 votes – may
in fact attest to the relatively low influence of nationalist versus Catholic
and other pressure groups in what was one of England’s most ethnically
Irish constituencies. Local Catholic bishops, angered over Liberaleducation policy, had apparently told Catholic voters they ‘would be justified
in voting Tory
–2006 (Aldershot, 2007), pp. 15–19.
Obstruction or interrogation?
65 This includes the seven O’Brienites and T.M. Healy’s seat in North Louth.
Healy’s brother, Maurice, lost his seat in the January elections but was
subsequently returned in Cork North-East as O’Brien’s nominee. O’Brien,
having won in two constituencies, elected to sit for Cork City. Callanan,
Healy, p. 463.
66 On the centrality of the trade issue to the 1906 general election, see George
Dangerfield, The Strange Death of Liberal England (rev. edn, London,
1966), p. 22. On the fate of the Liberals