her study of British social realism, suggesting that critics came up with the British New Wave label in response to realist movements in theatre and literature, later through perceived similarities with French New Wave cinema. She goes on to argue for Italian neorealism as a more appropriate parallel, 19 but the point remains that British directors working in the area of realism were offering up an alternative to Hollywood – a key art film ingredient in Neale’s study. The relationship between the concept of the auteur and that of art cinema takes Neale’s analysis
reappeared in the revisions of the Cold War’s
history 4 and
in the topical security policy discourse about unipolarity and US
hegemony. 5 In
contrast to neo-realism, my focus is on social meanings and practices,
relations of domination, and their political economy
underpinnings. 6 From this angle, I analyse the global consequences of
the tendency on the
in its most urgent task). 3 Histoire(s) du cinéma becomes, then, in the words
of James Williams, ‘a tragic narrative of waste and shame’
(Williams 1999 : 308): the cinema never recovers after
this fundamental failure in its mission, and post-war film history is
characterised by a gradual but ineluctable decline, with the few moments of
inspiration – Italian Neo-realism, the French New Wave – unable
to reverse the
Diva , and in particular the knowing mixture of disparate cultural
references, make it ‘the first French postmodernist film’
(Jameson 1990 : 55), this quality is integrated
into the narrative drive rather than detracting from it.
Les Amants du Pont-Neuf : neo-realism meets
By some years the youngest film-maker
of the cinéma du look , Léos Carax – real name Alex
intervention matters. Steve Saiderman and Stephen Dyson have both emphasised the practical importance of Game of Thrones in communicating IR theory – and principally realism and neo-realism to audiences less inclined to sit and read the work of Hobbes and Machiavelli. 45 When teaching international students who have not previously come across Waltz and Mearsheimer, Dyson has suggested throwing out the textbooks and turning on Game of Thrones . Likewise, Clapton and Shepherd argue that there are important ‘lessons from Westeros’, as students and viewers ‘learn about
plot, would be refracted through the prisms of Italian neo-realism and humanist cinema; it becomes a very different thing, however, when approached with the eye of the bicycle movie fan for handlebar and saddle design ( Figure 17 ).
17 Neo-realist classic or masterpiece of humanist cinema – or ‘bicycling movie’? Vittorio de Sica’s Bicycle Thieves (1948)
In both of these online lists there is evidence of properly communal engagement, as theorised by Altman, rather than the idiosyncratic endeavours of one or two people. The first selection
is even possible to tentatively link Euro-realism to the influential international relations theory of ‘realism’ itself, although it is not really true to argue that ECR MEPs themselves try to make such a claim. Neo-realism, for example, involves a theoretical interpretation of the way that different countries interact which is based ultimately on self-interest, power and the idea that for so long as countries exist, their governments will seek to protect their political and economic concerns above all else (Waltz 1979 ). Membership of the European Union is
recurring references to the contemporaneous writings in L’Âge du cinéma . Stylistically influenced by neorealism, Los olvidados nevertheless pulsates with the surrealist sensibility that Buñuel asserted in his essay, and which was further established in statements by the Mexican surrealist poet Octavio Paz and, more grudgingly, Breton.
The mediation, transmission, and, to a certain extent, mediumism in and of surrealist film remain key strains in the arguments of the three subsequent chapters, which each discuss films from the 1960s. Arnaud Maillet undertakes
Institutions and State Power (Boulder, CO:
Westview Press, 1989).
15 See Oran R. Young, ‘The Effectiveness of International Institutions: Hard Cases
and Critical Variables’, in James N. Rosenau and Ernst-Otto Czempiel (eds),
Governance without Government: Order and Change in World Politics (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1992), pp. 160–94.
16 Robert Axelrod and Robert O. Keohane, ‘Achieving Cooperation under Anarchy:
Strategies and Institutions’, in Baldwin, Neorealism and Neoliberalism, pp.
17 Robert O. Keohane, Joseph S. Nye and Stanley Hoffmann (eds
(2000/01), pp. 128–61, esp. p. 159; and Gideon Rose, ‘Neoclassical Realism and
Theories of Foreign Policy’, World Politics, 51:1 (1998), pp. 144–72.
Mark Kramer, ‘Neorealism, Nuclear Proliferation, and East-Central European
Strategies’, in Ethan B. Kapstein and Michael Mastanduno (eds), Unipolar Politics:
Realism and State Strategies After the Cold War (New York: Columbia University
Institutions of security governance
Press, 1999), pp. 428, 437–8, 462.
15 For a survey of assessments of the PfP, see Henry