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Sara Callahan

wake of a number of sociopolitical ruptures that symbolically and literally brought archival practices and their effects to the forefront of international debates. Archiving and surveillance practices carried out in Eastern Europe became visible after the fall of the Soviet Union, and following the first free elections in South Africa, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was established in 1995. In South Africa archiving practices were of interest in two ways: they could be considered to have contributed to the implementation of apartheid in the first place

in Art + Archive
Mairi Cowan

bailies of Stirling heard a case in 1525 in which Willie Fiddler, alias Ednom, had used violent and impertinent language against James Crag, chaplain. They ordered that Willie was no more to bother Sir James, and that if he did he was to pay 40s to the Roodwork (in the parish church). 155 A more detailed account of reconciliation comes from Perth when, in 1502, the provost, bailies and council of Perth

in Death, life, and religious change in Scottish towns, c.1350–1560

This book examines the treatment of cultural and religious diversity - indigenous and immigrant - on both sides of the Irish border in order to analyse the current state of tolerance, and the kinds of policies that may support integration while respecting diversity. While it is sometimes argued that in contemporary societies we need to go ‘beyond tolerance’ to more positive recognition, new and continuing tensions and conflicts among groups suggest that there may still be a role for tolerance. The first set of chapters focus on the spheres of education, civic life and politics, including chapters on specific groups (e.g. travellers, immigrants), as well as the communal divisions in Northern Ireland. Later chapters reflect on the Irish experience of diversity, and assess the extent to which the conceptual approaches and discourses employed to deal with it are comparable between the jurisdictions of the Republic and Northern Ireland. Finally the book considers the implications for what constitutes the most appropriate approach to diversity - whether this should ideally be in terms of tolerance and mutual accommodation, of recognition, or transformative reconciliation. This is the first book to address the issue of tolerance across the broad sweep of different kinds of religious and cultural diversity in Northern Ireland and the Republic.

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Heritage and transformation in Nelson Mandela Bay
Author: Naomi Roux

The book focuses on the Nelson Mandela Bay Metro in South Africa’s Eastern Cape, using the city as a case study to read the ways in which memory is being written into South African urban space two decades after the end of apartheid. At the core of the book is the question of how history is written into public space, and how inscriptions of the past and its meanings are being challenged. This reading of public space and memory is located in a context where the promises of ‘reconciliation’ and the ‘rainbow nation’ are largely falling apart, and one in which South African cities remain in dire need of dramatic spatial and social transformation. The book is organised around four examples of memorial sites/practices, highlighting some of the ways in which public memory has been circumscribed by the state as well as the ways in which this circumscription has been contested. These include the Red Location Museum of Struggle, a highly contentious museum project; histories of forced removals in the suburb of South End; the activism and iconography of a group called the Amabutho, which was active in the city’s townships during the struggles of the 1980s; and heritage-related public art projects in the city centre. These examples collectively illuminate the spatial politics of memory in the twenty-first-century post-apartheid city, and the intersections between urban transformation and public memory.

The case of Iran–US relations

This book addresses a critical issue in global politics: how recognition and misrecognition fuel conflict or initiate reconciliation. The main objective of this book is to demonstrate how representations of one state by another influence foreign policymaking behaviour. The key argument is that representations are important because they shape both the identity of a state and how it is recognised by others. States respond to representations of themselves that do not fit with how they wish to be recognised. The book provides a thorough conceptual engagement with the issues at stake and a detailed empirical investigation of the fraught bilateral relations between the United States and Iran, which is perhaps one of the most significant flashpoints in global politics today. Despite Iran and the US finally reaching an agreement on the nuclear issue that allows Iran limited nuclear technological capacity in exchange for the lifting of certain sanctions, the US withdrew from the deal in May 2018. However, questions remain about how best to explain the initial success of this deal considering the decades of animosity between Iran and the US, which have previously scuppered any attempts on both sides to reach an amicable agreement. Increasing concerns about declining Iran–US relations under the Trump administration suggest even more so the power of recognition and misrecognition in world politics. Scholars and strategists alike have struggled to answer the question of how this deal was made possible, which this book addresses.

Editor: C. E. Beneš

This book provides the first English translation of the Chronicle of the city of Genoa by the thirteenth-century Dominican Jacopo da Varagine (also known as Jacobus de Voragine). While Jacopo is better known for his monumental compilation of saints’ lives, the Golden legend, his lesser known Chronicle of Genoa exemplifies the important medieval genre of the civic chronicle. The work mixes scholarly research about the city’s origins with narrative accounts based on Genoese archival sources, more didactic and moral reflections on the proper conduct of public and private life, and personal accounts of Jacopo’s own experience as archbishop of Genoa from 1292 until his death in 1298. Divided into twelve parts, the work covers the history of Genoa from its ancient origins up to Jacopo’s own day. Jacopo’s first-hand accounts of events in which he himself participated—such as the great civic reconciliation of 1295, over which he himself presided—provide a valuable contrast to the more scholarly and didactic sections of the work. Together they form an integrated, coherent approach to urban history, which illustrates some of the most important styles of historiography in the Middle Ages.

The forensic and political lives of secondary mass graves in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Admir Jugo and Sari Wastell

’s secondary mass graves in the country’s processes of social reconciliation and peace-building. A definition of the mass grave Over the course of time, ever since the first excavations of mass graves, there have always been attempts at defining what constitutes a mass grave. Currently, there are several definitions and typologies of mass graves that have been put forward. Some of these definitions are based solely on the minimum number of bodies buried, while others try to define a mass grave not only by the number of bodies buried, but by the processes of creation and

in Human remains and identification
Sandra Pogodda, Oliver P. Richmond, and Roger Mac Ginty

G. P. Herd, ‘Characterizing the European Union’s strategic culture: An analytical framework’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 49:6 (2011), 1227–48. Bohlken, A. T. and E. J. Sergenti, ‘Economic growth and ethnic violence: An empirical investigation of Hindu–Muslim riots in India’, Journal of Peace Research, 47:5 (2010), 580–600. Bose, S. S., ‘Special India Reserve Battalion in Naxal areas’, Times of India, 7 December 2011. Byrne, S., J. Arnold, K. Standish, O. Skarlato and P. Tenant, ‘The impact of international funding on reconciliation and human security in

in Cultures of governance and peace
Editor: Tom Inglis

The Irish mind has enabled the Irish to balance and accommodate imagination and intellect, emotion and reason, poetry and science. The notion of cultural difference is not just an Irish story, but a story of nations and ethnic groups all over the world. The story of modernity revolves around people coming to see and understand themselves as belonging to nations. Although there were other European nations that made Catholicism a keystone of national difference, there were many factors that made the Irish project different. The idea of creating a society that had a collective vision and commitment without being socialist became an ideal of the Catholic Church during the latter half of the twentieth century. The Church did, nevertheless, have a profound influence on Irish society and culture. The extent to which the Catholic Church shaped and influenced Irish politics has been the subject of much research and debate. The power of the Catholic Church in politics stemmed from the power it developed in the modernisation of Irish society and, in particular, the controlling of sexuality, marriage and fertility. During the first half of the twentieth century, the Irish developed a particular aversion to marriage. For many nations and ethnic groups, what binds people together is that they speak the same language. It may well be that for generations many Irish people identified the Irish language, music and sport as an inhibitor in embracing a less insular and more urbane, cosmopolitan disposition.

Judith Renner

the emergence of the reconciliation discourse and to critically examine its performance in global politics, and this chapter sets out to develop the theoretical framework for this undertaking. Thus, the chapter seeks to achieve two things. In order to meet its analytical goal, it provides a set of theoretical concepts that help to reconstruct the emergence and hegemonisation of powerful discourses. In order to meet its critical goal

in Discourse, normative change and the quest for reconciliation in global politics