provincial authorities in exchange for political posts or posts within the military
apparatus’. While such wording is longer and no doubt more tedious, it would
at least not lull our readers with magical thinking about ‘peace’
The fact that journalists draw liberally from the diplomatic well when it comes to
war contexts was confirmed by a Le Monde veteran who had done some
reporting in Goma in 1996, whom I interviewed for a study ( Brabant, 2011 ). As he explained
al-Bashir, had overseen the killing of 400,000 citizens
in Darfur – double the 200,000 deaths estimated by other experts ( de Waal, 2007 ). The adverts were ultimately ruled misleading by the British
Advertising Standards Authority; this was an embarrassing outcome that played directly into the
hands of the Sudanese government and its allegations that Western groups were exaggerating the
scale of the conflict ( Mamdani, 2007 ).
In addition to their own campaign content, NGOs consistently and actively seek to influence
journalists and their
), Negotiations: 1972–1990 ( New York : Columbia University Press ).
Derrida , J. ( 1992 ), ‘ Force of Law: The “Mystical Foundation of Authority” ’, in Cornell , D. , Rosenfeld , M. and Carlson , D. G. (eds), Deconstruction and the Possibility of Justice ( New York : Routledge ).
Duffield , M. ( 2001 ), Global Governance and the New Wars: The Merging of Development and Security ( London : Zed Books ).
Duffield , M. ( 2005 ), ‘ Getting Savages to Fight Barbarians: Development, Security and the Colonial Present ’, Conflict, Security
Architecture, Building and Humanitarian Innovation
problems. There are a great many political sensitivities and widespread opposition
to camps, and local authorities may balk at any form of building that suggests
permanent settlement ( McConnachie, 2016 ;
Turner, 2016 ; UNHCR, 2014 ; van der
Borght and Philips, 1995 ). If we look at the response to the civil war in
Syria, for example, only a minority of refugees ended up living in purpose-built
accommodation or large planned encampments due to such sensitivities
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell, and Dónal P. O’Mathúna
greater language sensitivity and metalinguistic awareness, particularly among
those who are accorded greater epistemic authority’ ( Peled, 2018 : 361). Otherwise,
individuals who are marginalised and who already suffer disproportionately
during disasters and crises will experience further injustice rather than
experience the dignity and empowerment which translation can provide ( O’Mathúna, 2018 ).
The first three layers of ethical issues drew attention to ethical
. […] You know, you are a humanitarian. And then also
for PR, it would [expletive] us completely if this is [happening].
Other organisations similarly confirmed that they were careful, for instance by
asking their employees not to mention their employer on the social media
accounts they used for private expression of opinion. One INGO mentioned how
they were informally contacted by local authorities about some of the social
Corporations, Celebrities and the Construction of the Entrepreneurial
Annika Bergman Rosamond and Catia Gregoratti
Our analysis below unpacks the discourses and knowledge that produce representations
of a particular problem: the problem of refugee women. This requires a close reading
of the representations that render a problem legible and amenable to humanitarian
intervention. The wider study of problematisation is not an exclusive concern for
those interested in formal public policy, laws and governmental programmes. It has
found applications in studies concerned with how authorities other than
restitution of lands could be one example of these dilemmas. As of December 2014, 72,623 claims had been filed, but only 25,215 were considered suitable to be processed by the Government; 9,695 claims were included in the Land Registry and 7,269 were requests for restitution of lands ( CNMH, 2015b : 501).
The tutela is a constitutional injunction that aims to protect citizens from the violation, arbitrary use or omission of public authority with respect to their fundamental rights.
See also Restrepo (2015) and Ibañez and Moya (2007) .
Local Understandings of Resilience after Typhoon Haiyan in Tacloban City, Philippines
Ara Joy Pacoma, Yvonne Su, and Angelie Genotiva
( 2006 ), ‘ Expanded Hopelessness Theory of Depression: On the Mechanisms by which Social Support Protects Against Depression ’, Cognitive Therapy and Research , 30 : 3 , 307 – 33 .
RAY (Reconstruction Assistance on Yolanda)
( 2013 ), Reconstruction Assistance on Yolanda: Build Back Better ,
National Economic and Development Authority , Pasig City , https://reliefweb.int//sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/20131216-RAY.pdf (accessed 25
Lessons Learned for Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States
hold the governmental authorities to account. We allowed ourselves to be morally blackmailed and our calls for accountability reaped steadily diminishing returns’ ( 2017 : 199). In instances where collaboration is not possible or feasible (including due to serious concerns of corruption), an alternative to active collaboration with the government is alignment (outlined next).
Alignment . As of 2018, the operational environment was slowly moving from one of emergency response to development activity (or at least the introduction of both sets of activities in