roles of abstract speakers and listeners; instead they come to the roles
with differing degrees of social authority, depending on their age,
class, gender, occupation and so on. The specific languages or
‘speech-genres’ which we use in such dialogues express
definite ways of seeing the world; they are, in effect, distinct social
ideologies. Literary genres are characterised by particular
present it is easy to stall on the task of discovering it—a step that can hardly be bypassed—but the fact that solutions to riddles are frequently given, especially in Anglo-Latin contexts, shows that in a broader view of the genre the initial search is only part of what a riddle is for, and indeed an optional part. 22 The gateway challenge, whatever form it takes, ensures investment, but the epistemic work of reckoning with that initial estrangement continues, because the semiotic grammar of riddles in itself ‘make[s] us realise that the grid we impose upon the world
proto-ethnographic information (as late as the use of Indian
feather dresses brought by Aphra Behn from Surinam and donated to the
Royal Society, in Dryden and Purcell’s 1695 musical drama The
Indian Queene ).
The genre brought into focus in Part
III , the drama of the new commercial theatre, where scripted
plays were memorised and performed by paid actors in purpose
-Saxon Ascension corpus.
The Ascension in Anglo-Saxon literature
Anglo-Saxon authors had a fondness for the Ascension, as evinced by the notable range of texts that survive for this occasion, forming a sub-corpus that spans genres and the entire Anglo-Saxon period and that was intended for widely differing audiences and settings. The sources at the centre of this study either depict the place of the Ascension or directly narrate the biblical Ascension story or events closely linked to it. 35 In the Old English Martyrology
be ‘willed, faked, performed through the repetition of scripted words. It is through such manifest fakery, this genre insists, that compassion can be brought into being, can come to be “true”’.
Both in her study of affective meditations and in her other scholarship, McNamer proposes that it is exactly the ornamental features of literature – its ‘literariness’ – that enable some literary texts to function as scripts for the performance of emotion. While acknowledging that the
comportment in social situations. Those examples of the genre that are addressed to women advocated behaviour that would enable women to remain free from any vice and retain spotless reputations (as much a matter of concern for women's families as it was for women themselves).
Consequently, much of the advice contained in these texts is directed towards the problem of how to preserve one's chastity and how to avoid arousing even the slightest suspicion of sexual incontinence. In other words, the conduct literature of
Bringing stone, flesh, and text to life in Andreas
belongs to ‘a self-conscious avant-garde that confronts and consumes its past selves’ and is ‘a generic hybrid that has always rested uneasily in the Anglo-Saxon canon’. 14 Irina Dumitrescu finds citation, including of Beowulf , in rather unexpected settings, to be an integral component of the Andreas -author's sophisticated pedagogical programme. 15
The fourth textual frame, more general than Praxeis or Beowulf , comes from Old English generic conventions, but here, too, complications arise. To which genre does Andreas belong? Most critics acknowledge its
Geoffrey Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde and John Lydgate’s Troy Book
, and many
others, emerge across a variety of genres from courtly romance to
history to alchemical treatises testify as well to its systematic use in
late-medieval literary culture.
As Lydgate, referenced above, depicts an open example of the
emendation invitation through inviting all readers to correct the
text, Chaucer occupies a middle ground in his offer of an early
example of the emendation invitation in Middle English at the
end of Troilus and Criseyde following the ‘Go, little book’ address
of the Envoy. There, Chaucer famously expresses concern about
topographies in the wider medieval European milieu: only in Ireland was a distinct genre
of placelore formalized and popularized. One need not turn to lesser-known writings to
prove this; medieval Ireland’s canonical literary texts also establish that
place-writing is globally important across literature produced by and about the Irish.
Our knowledge of the Irish places named in the sources is fairly robust because of
extensive study by scholars of Ireland from across the disciplines. In most cases, we
by Chaucer the pilgrim. 30 The characters within each tale are
appropriate to its genre: Theseus, the wise ruler in the
‘Knight’s Tale’; John, the deceived husband, and
Nicholas, the lustful young clerk, in the ‘Miller’s
Tale’; the personified virtue of Prudence in the ‘Tale of
Melibee’. However, the characters of the pilgrims themselves as
they are depicted in the frame-narrative of the tales are