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Sruti Bala

call for participation are reimagined through an aesthetic register, such as modes of representation or theatrical devices such as allegorization, de-familiarization or distancing. Conversely, it could pertain to how artistic strategies of shaping audience participation render visible the failures and possibilities of people’s participation in the public sphere, as in works that problematize exploitative labour conditions or political repression by mimicking them, over-identifying with them or making them evident through a process of exaggeration (BAVO, 2007; Holmes

in The gestures of participatory art
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Graham Harrison

poses some challenges. Poverty in Africa is generally not a result of labour conditions in a sweatshop or a plantation. Nor has landlessness been a major source of political struggle – although ‘land grabs’ have increased a great deal since the mid-2000s. Poverty is often the outcome of the conditions of labour and trade within and between low productivity agrarian livelihoods and casual or temporary labour on commercial farms, petty trade, and informal business. The ability of the poor to organise and represent themselves through official organisations is relatively

in The African presence
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Precarity in the fashion system
Ilaria Vanni

distretti industriali: un percorso tra decostruzione e internazionalizzazione’, in L. Ferrucci and R. Varaldo (eds), Il distretto industriale tra logiche di impresa e logiche di sistema (Milan: Franco Angeli, 1997), pp. 54–85; and E. Rullani, ‘Cluster: tendenze e scenari nell’economia globalizzata’, in Patterns of Clusters Evolutions: Modelli, pratiche, tecnologie e politiche (Mestre, 2007),, accessed 30 May 2019. A. Arvidsson, G. Malossi and Serpica Naro, ‘Passionate work? Labour conditions

in Precarious objects
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WeMake, a makerspace in Milan
Ilaria Vanni

Charter see Fab Foundation, ‘The Fab Charter’, Fab Foundation (2020),, accessed 2 May 2020. J. Adams Stein, ‘The political imaginaries of 3D printing: prompting mainstream awareness of design and making’, Design and Culture, 9:1 (2017), 4, /10.1080/17547075.2017.1279941. Gauntlett, Making is connecting. Von Busch, ‘Fashion hacking’, p. 48. Ibid., p. 50. A. Arvidsson, G. Malossi and Serpica Naro, ‘Passionate work? Labour conditions in the Milan fashion industry’, Journal of Cultural Research, 14

in Precarious objects
A ‘well-oiled machine’ to combaturban chaos
Christy Kulz

because they are on the other side of the building and I am on the other side, and we don’t see each other. And I can’t ask them, you know, basic things, like, ‘how is this student doing in your class?’ I can email them, but I can’t talk to them. He suggests these divisions stop teachers from communicating about their labour conditions: ‘if everyone knew that people weren’t happy with staying in school until six, maybe people could have said something or they could have pressured the senior management’. Ms Watson thinks it is ‘very clever that we don’t have a staff

in Factories for learning
Clement Masakure

Health, 1911. 36 Government of Southern Rhodesia, Report of Public Health, 1914. 37 I. R. Phimister , ‘ African labour conditions and health in Southern Rhodesian mining industry, 1898–1953. Part IV; Hospitalisation and Conclusions ’, Central African Journal of Medicine , 22 : 12 ( 1976 ), pp. 244–9 . 38 Van Onselen, Chibaro , p. 57. 39 Van Onselen, Chibaro , p. 59. 40 Van Onselen , Chibaro, p. 59. 41 Africa University Archives: Board of Foreign Missions, On trek with Christ in Southern Africa . Methodist Episcopal Church, (n.d.), p. 47

in African nurses and everyday work in twentieth-century Zimbabwe
The examples of Algeria and Tunisia
Martin Thomas

ownership and control of agricultural markets were most pronounced. Labour conditions were highly significant. Industries that adopted modern production methods were susceptible to nationalist agitation among shopfloor workers performing repetitive tasks in a constrained working environment. Canning factories, bottling plants, textile manufacturers and, especially, mineworks became

in The French empire between the wars
Thomas D’haeninck, Jan Vandersmissen, Gita Deneckere, and Christophe Verbruggen

by Daniel Mareska and Jean-Julien Heyman. Their investigation of the labour conditions and moral and physical situation of the workers employed in Ghent’s cotton mills 34 stimulated further inquiries but also initiated social policies. 35 In the 1860s, plagues of cholera struck several neighbourhoods in Ghent. Relying on the recommendations he found in the old report of Mareska and Heyman, Burggraeve took

in Medical histories of Belgium
David Whyte

extend into everything the corporation does. Take, for example, what happens when a corporate person rather than a real person is regarded as an employer. When the corporation is the employer, the owners of the corporation, or the shareholders, cannot be held directly responsible for any liabilities that arise from the labour relationship; nor will they have any obligation to know about, far less do anything about, the labour conditions faced by ­workers in any of the companies that they own or invest in. When a company uses subsidiaries to employ workers, it becomes

in Ecocide
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The photographic archive of the war
Beatriz Pichel

monuments, the news, etc. in summary, everything that is directly or indirectly related to the war’. 40 The memorandum defined the new SPCA as consisting of the services of ‘the General Administration, the services at the army, the technical services and the laboratory, the dissemination and sale of photographs, the dissemination and sale of films, the archive and the service of cine-cantonnement and the cine-regions’. 41 The labour conditions of photographers and filmmakers, as well as the organisation of the laboratory and the archives remained the same

in Picturing the Western Front