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International, European and national frameworks
Gill Allwood and Khursheed Wadia

who perpetrate the violence, and the risks that a woman might face on her return to her country of origin after making a claim for refugee status. (UNHCR 2002a, para. 36 (x), in Crawley and Lester 2004: 129). The Gender Guidelines also offer guidance in establishing which forms of gender-specific harm can constitute persecution: International human rights law and international criminal law clearly identify certain acts as violations of these laws, such as sexual violence, and support their characterisation as serious abuses, amounting to persecution. In this sense

in Refugee women in Britain and France
Shane Kilcommins, Susan Leahy, Kathleen Moore Walsh, and Eimear Spain

positive trends are evident among victims of this category of crime, reporting levels remain strikingly low. Statistics published by the RCNI demonstrate that an increasing number of users of its service are reporting the crime committed against them to police, with 18% reporting in 2007 and 27% reporting in 2009 (Hanly et al., 2009 : 11). The number of victims of sexual violence reporting to police in 2014 had risen to 33% (RCNI, 2014 : 23). Interestingly, 3% reported exclusively to another formal authority including the Redress Board, Health Services Executive

in The victim in the Irish criminal process
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Progressive men and predatory practices
Jessica Breakey

around, gagging as the sticky sweetness clung to our faces. A few minutes later, I was assaulted by a comrade inside the room. In late 2019, I presented a paper titled ‘Progressive Men and Predatory Practices’ at a workshop on sexual violence in the public sphere at the Centre for the Study of Law and Governance at Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU). I use the term ‘paper’ here loosely. My colleagues presented papers, the results of rigorous research, offering deep analyses woven into appropriate theory

in Intimacy and injury
Kseniya Oksamytna and John Karlsrud

– human rights, child soldiers, and wartime sexual violence – became more prominent. The UN's willingness to assist with post-independence or democratic transitions necessitated taking up such unfamiliar tasks as ‘running elections, creating new police forces, repatriating refugees, and overseeing the demobilization of armies and the reintegration of deeply divided societies’ (Barnett 2009 : 567). These operations were referred to as ‘second-generation’ peacekeeping. Various other definitions were offered, such as ‘extended’ or ‘wider’ peacekeeping (Findlay 2002 : 6

in United Nations peace operations and International Relations theory
Lynsey Black

, birth and infant murder were marked for a ‘male typist’. 114 Sexual and domestic violence There was impressive form in these decades when it came to suppressing unpalatable details of a sexual nature, such as the suppression of the 1931 Carrigan Report and its revelations on the prevalence of sexual violence. 115 The government was skilled in ‘ideologically driven news management’ when it came to questions of sexual deviance. 116 The coded nature of reporting on abortion was matched by the limited and

in Gender and punishment in Ireland
In conversation about SWEAT’s #SayHerName
Ntokozo Yingwana and Nosipho Vidima

notes that, on average, female sex workers support around four dependents, while their male colleagues about two. SGBV and sex work South Africa’s progressive constitution recognises gender as a social act of expression and upholds the rights of all forms of gender expression. 4 However, the country’s rates of SGBV are still among the highest in the world. A 2014 study found that 25.3 per cent of the surveyed women had suffered some form of sexual violence, while 37.4 per cent of the men

in Intimacy and injury
Valerie Bryson

sexism, and she campaigned with others to encourage companies whose Facebook advertisements had been appearing on pages that seemed to condone or encourage sexual violence to withdraw from the site (after fifteen advertisers, including Nissan, withdrew, Facebook promised a number of measures, including improved moderator training and updated user guidelines: Bates, 2014 ; Mantilla, 2015 ). The word ‘sexism’ continues to be widely used today, and it has a clear role to play in creating a view of the world that reflects and communicates many women’s experiences and

in The futures of feminism
Sabine Lee

mothers in post-war societies. This will include an overview of the frequently exploitative and violent military–civilian relations throughout the Second World War in different theatres of war and in various phases of the conflict. The exposition will show that violence was perpetrated by soldiers against the civilian population, but also by irregular forces; furthermore, sexual violence occurred in the form of outright rape, but also forced prostitution in occupied territories, as well as in brothels, mostly notably in the military brothels such as the notorious

in Children born of war in the twentieth century
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Heterocosms and bricolage in Moore’s recent reworkings of Lovecraft
Matthew J.A. Green

share with From Hell and Voice a meditation on the interrelationship of the occult and the repressive violence of the law (‘The Courtyard’), a concern over the psychic significance of landscape and geography (‘Zaiman’s Hill’) and an anxiety over the ambivalent associations amongst magic, sexual violence and insanity (‘Recognition’). These stories have been republished in

in Alan Moore and the Gothic Tradition
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Kuba Szreder

precariat (Standing 2014 ). The term ‘precarity’ is commonly used to denote instability, low wages, lack of security and thwarted possibilities of advancement, all related to adverse modes of employment, such as zero hours, part-time and flexible contracts. More generally, as feminist scholars such as Isabell Lorey and Judith Butler argue, precariousness is a fundamental condition of vulnerability, lack of protection, exposure to risks and violence, inherent not to any specific class of workers, but to whole populations, such as sans-papiers or women exposed to sexual

in The ABC of the projectariat