This book charts the story of the people of the Scottish Highlands from before the '45 to the great crofters' rebellion in the 1880s - a powerful story of defeat, social dissolution, emigration, rebellion and cultural revival. The conventional and familiar division of Scotland into 'Highlands' and 'Lowlands' is a comparatively recent development. Strangely, fourteenth century chroniclers who noted differences in culture, dress, speech and social behaviour between the Highlands and the Lowlands failed to comment on clanship as a distinguishing characteristic. During the Wars of Independence against England, soldiers from the Highlands fought on the Scottish side but were not given clan affiliations. The penetration of feudal structures into the Highlands blurred the distinction between clanship and social systems elsewhere in Scotland and many of the greatest clan chiefs were feudal lords as well as tribal leaders. This can be best illustrated from the history of the Lordship of the Isles. Successive heads of the MacDonald dynasty practised primogeniture, issued feudal charters to major landowners in the lordship and employed feudal rules in marital contracts. It used to be thought that Highland clanship died on Culloden Moor in 1746 and was effectively buried by the punitive legislation imposed on Gaeldom after the final defeat of the last Jacobite rebellion. It is clear that clan society was undergoing a process of gradual and protracted decline long before the '45 and that the climax to this was reached in the decades after the failure of the rebellion.
Lord Napier and most British observers in the mid-1830s could not have foreseen that a large-scale military conflict would break out between Britain and China within just a few years. As discussed in the Introduction, much has been written about this milestone in the history of Sino-Western encounters – the First Anglo-Chinese War, or the Opium War – but some important questions have escaped our close attention. When exactly did the war begin? Some maintain that it was in 1839; others believe that it began in 1840. What was the immediate
Who are they? Experiences of children, mothers, families and post-conflict communities
Children born of war: who are they?
Experiences of children, mothers, families
and post-conflict communities
A novel phenomenon?
One might be forgiven for thinking that the existence of children born as
a result of wartime sexualised violence is a relatively recent phenomenon.
Images of Bosnian rape camps,1 the Human Rights Watch website reporting on mass rape and forced impregnation of black African women by Arab
militiamen in Darfur and Chad,2 journalistic reports about sexual abuse by
UN peacekeepers3 and horrific stories of mass genocide and genocidal
‘The fortunes of war’ – uncertainty
and economic hardship
Sarah Fishman has identified that, for French prisoner of war wives
during the Second World War, ‘financial hardship was the rule’.1
British prisoner of war wives often faced a similarly difficult financial situation and similar hardships. In addition to the delays to
payment of allowances suffered by many service families, and the
problems associated with ascertaining the true status of ‘missing’
servicemen, prisoner of war families often faced further delays
to the payment of their allowances in
3033 The ancient Greeks
War and religion
The experiences and traumas of war have often been explained, perhaps
even comprehended, through recourse to the divine and the supernatural.
As the saying goes, there are no atheists in a foxhole. So what did the Greeks
believe was the contribution of their gods to war? How did communities
prepare for and come to terms with war through their methods of communication with the divine and use of rituals? This chapter will be concerned
with understanding how the religious values of the
The impact of the First World War on the 1918–19 influenza pandemic in Ulster
The last six months of the
First World War coincided with one of the most virulent pandemics of
the twentieth century. Dubbed ‘the Spanish flu’, it
struck in three concurrent waves throughout the world and may have
had a global mortality of 100 million. 1 There were three distinct
waves of influenza in Ireland, which occurred in June 1918, October
The interwar years were a challenge to the women’s movement, which was somewhat becalmed and lacking direction after the suffrage victories of 1918 and 1928. While legislation aimed at removing sex discrimination from the workplace was enacted after the First World War, other laws, attitudes and traditions pressurised women to return to traditional gender roles that some had escaped from during the war. Nevertheless, by the outbreak of the Second World War women from all walks of life and in most professions had made steady progress in their search for equality, and the position of women in 1939 was unrecognisable from that in 1919. This book aims to establish how certain women were able to break through the obstacles ranged against them and achieve personal, professional and political fulfilment, and in so doing it formulates a framework for participation for other subjugated and marginalised groups. Taking the structure of a group biography of thirteen understudied and very different women, and using previously unpublished archival material, the book uncovers, on a granular level, the dispositions, skills and personal relationships that these women were endowed with that helped them achieve participation in the public world of work and politics. Each chapter examines a different participation strategy, from direct action to the use of formal networks, which different women employed to gain access to a range of areas barred to them, from politics, to engineering, to mountaineering, to foreign correspondence and humanitarian activism.
In sight of war
‘Just imagine it,’ murmured Bazarov, ‘what a word can mean! You’ve
found it, said it, the word “crisis” – and you’re happy! It’s astonishing
how a man can still believe in words.’1
I don’t know that the large words Courage, Loyalty, God and the rest had,
before the war, been of frequent occurrence in London conversations.
But one had had the conviction they were somewhere in the city’s
subconsciousness. . . Now they were gone.2
Ford admired Turgenev, so it is not surprising that one comes across
ideas borrowed, perhaps, from him in the later
3047 Priestleys England
September 3 1939 found Priestley on his way to London from his home
on the Isle of Wight. He was heading for Broadcasting House, where he
was to read on air the first episode of a new novel commissioned by the
BBC, called Let the People Sing: the first novel it was claimed, ever
written specifically for broadcasting. The road was quiet, the day sunny,
the journey smooth; but as they reached Staines at about noon, everything
changed: noise, traffic jams, screaming sirens, people in tin hats
The war of ideas
Praise the Lord and pass the ammunition. (Lieutenant Howell M. Forgy)
In an odd quirk of history, the two economists whose ideas fought a fierce
contest to determine the shape of globalisation shared the job of fire warden at
Cambridge University during the Second World War, taking turns watching out
for bombs dropped by the Luftwaffe.
During his weekend visits to the university, John Maynard Keynes’s lanky
frame could be found perched on the Gothic roof of King’s College Chapel.
He undoubtedly used this quiet time to mull over