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Helen Boak

) opened an advisory office in Berlin, which ran training courses in public speaking for women and provided female speakers for many of the meetings held by the Protestant Church to educate women about the vote, as well as producing numerous leaflets and brochures. 28 In early December it agreed to work together with the Political Working Group of German Catholic Women’s Associations to educate Christian women to vote in the forthcoming election. 29 The committee charged with the political education of women adopted the maxims ‘The right to vote means a duty to vote

in Women in the Weimar Republic
Singlehood in the patriarch’s household
Isaac Stephens

idealized marriage and could cast scorn on single people, especially never-married women. If we turn to specific evidence of cases of women who experienced or had thoughts about marriage formation and singlehood, we find illustrations of the religious ambiguities that revolved around the processes of wedlock and never marrying. Of course, Catholic women in England had long found a ready religious avenue to pursue if they felt disinclined to have a husband, as was the case for the noted mystic and nun of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, Mary Ward. Born

in The gentlewoman’s remembrance
Helen Boak

. Helene Willfüer of a single mother, Helene, who obtains her doctorate, works in a laboratory on a successful rejuvenation technique and marries her former professor. A member of the Federation of Catholic Women Students’ Associations repudiated Baum’s depiction of female students, claiming that women did not go to university to indulge in free love, and that Helene, in conceiving a child with another student, attempting to get an abortion and contemplating suicide, was far removed from the feminine ideal to which they aspired. 138 Baum’s other major work, Menschen

in Women in the Weimar Republic
Martine Monacelli

regular contributor to the Tablet which, from 1888, under the influence of its editor J. G. Snead-Cox, began to speak favourably of women’s enfranchisement. Clayton got involved in the activities of the Men’s League for Woman Suffrage, and the Women Writers’ Suffrage League. His pamphlet ‘Votes for Women’ (1918) was published by the Catholic Women’s Suffrage Society. When a student at Oxford, he had befriended F. D. Maurice and Charles Kingsley, but he gave the full measure of his political engagement on joining the Leeds ILP branch. Clayton edited the Labour

in Male voices on women's rights
James E. Kelly

, Catholicism and Spirituality: Women and the Roman Catholic Church in Britain and Europe, 1200–1900 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), pp. 109–11. 8 See, for example, J. Bilinkoff, ‘Confessors, penitents, and the construction of identities in early modern Avila’, in B. B. Diefendorf and C. Hesse (eds), Culture and Identity in Early Modern Europe: Essays in Honor of Natalie Zemon Davis (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1993), pp. 83–100; C. M. Seguin, ‘Ambiguous liaisons: Catholic women’s relationships with their confessors in early modern England’, Archiv für

in College communities abroad
Abstract only
Writing sex and nation
Emer Nolan

novel The country girls (1960), is far from being the first Irish woman writer, although rural Catholic women writers were certainly rare before her time. Many more Irish women writers have emerged over the last sixty or so years. The poet Eavan Boland was probably the first explicitly to associate her work since the 1970s with the feminist critique of national myths and the recovery of occluded women’s traditions.5 In recent decades, many women writers have appeared who are generally highly sensitive to feminist perspectives and who themselves have been read with

in Five Irish women
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The story of a voice
Emer Nolan

covers, publicity shots) was bleached of any stereotypical suggestion of Irishness; despite this, her fans – Irish and non-Irish, male and female – seem to have embraced her as a startling new icon of modern Irish femininity. But a woman’s bald head also recalls the horrible spectacle of communal punishment meted out to someone who has been guilty of sexual contact with the enemy. Such images recall photographs of shaven women who had consorted with Nazis being paraded through the streets in post-Liberation France, or of Catholic women in Northern Ireland, accused of

in Five Irish women
A British–French comparison
Caroline Rusterholz

, historian Anne Cova has shown the involvement of women, and among them women doctors, in the natalist movement, and she has shown how Catholic women were at the forefront of the interwar development of family policy. 77 However, this position was not shared by all women doctors; Blanchier reported having noticed a slight difference between the answers from female and male doctors, with women tending to be more tolerant of birth control when it came to protecting the individual well-being of a child. She attributed their

in Women’s medicine
Laura Kelly

Presbyterian Missionary Society in detail, but here I will also examine some Catholic women missionaries and Irish women who worked in secular organisations like the Dufferin Fund. There had been cries for women doctors for India since 1882, when Frances Hoggan, one of the first licentiates of the King and Queen’s College of Physicians of Ireland, published her paper ‘Medical women for India’, in which she argued that the medical needs of Indian women were not being met by the new civil wing of the Indian Medical Service, which had been established in 1880 in order to

in Irish women in medicine, c.1880s–1920s
Preventing pregnancy
Leanne McCormick

held in 1965 about family planning in Northern Ireland and a programme on the BBC in 1966. The debates concerning the papers encyclical on birth control, Humanae Vitae, in 1968 also put family planning in the public domain and while for some Catholic women this may have discouraged attendance at family planning clinics, for others it may have drawn to their attention the possibilities and availability of family planning. It is also important not to underestimate the importance of female networks of friends and family in increasing awareness about family planning

in Regulating sexuality