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Chris Duke, Michael Osborne, and Bruce Wilson

activate policy-focused specialist clusters, featured as themes of Chapters 6–9, suffered seriously. Vulnerability to virtual communications failure, and the urge to press too much activity into too little time, and before client-participants are ready, are probably common to many such short-cycle development and R&D projects. This, and the cost of under-preparedness by some regions which were hurried prematurely into making a start, were important lessons learned by PASCAL. Benchmarking PASCAL brought expert knowledge and experience of benchmarking the engagement of

in A new imperative
Public spectacles and plebeian expertise, 1840–80
Peter Hobbins

until the 1870s, clinicians and scientists were impelled to emulate – or collaborate with – plebeian experts. In contrast to the prevailing teleology of natural history, this ‘vivisection in the pub’ represented a challenge to the uncertain legitimacy of colonial doctors and natural philosophers. Within settler societies negotiating a wider franchise and jury service, snakebite spectacles echoed the 1819

in Venomous encounters
Stavros Stavrides

1­ 30 Common spaces of urban emancipation 6 Commoning neighborhoods: the mutual help practices of Brazilian homeless movements USINA and the mutirão tradition The USINA team from São Paulo (Brazil) is a group of architects, planners, economists, and other relevant housing experts that explicitly supports participatory planning and works mainly with homeless movements. One USINA report effectively sums up the logic of this team’s interventions: “In the case of urban mutiroes, the pedagogical process of social change begins with the people’s organization in the

in Common spaces of urban emancipation
From the development of a national surveillance system to the birth of an international network
Roberto Pasetto and Ivano Iavarone

bringing environmental health issues related to contaminated sites to a wider international attention. The process was facilitated by the international networking consultations promoted by WHO with two expert meetings aimed at reviewing priorities, needs, data, and resources to address the question of contaminated sites and their health impact. A WHO publication on these meetings focuses on a number of European case studies, including the SENTIERI system, and summarizes the findings of the consultation, indicating opportunities, challenges, and a suggested way forward

in Toxic truths
Investigations and accusations
John Carter Wood

’s Gloucester trial would receive more sensational media coverage, but the Coleford inquest offered more information, being unbound by the rules of evidence that governed trials. Coroners, charged with examining all the circumstances of suspicious deaths, had broad discretion.42 Although it was undisputed that arsenic caused Harry’s death, expert medical testimony could not precisely determine how the poison had entered his system. Thus, much of the inquest considered circumstantial evidence: the state of the Pace marriage, the rumours of Beatrice’s affairs, the course of

in ‘The most remarkable woman in England’
Abstract only
Pasts, present, futures
Michael Brown

’s configuration in terms of a unified body of experts dedicated to the social good, we have been concerned with visions and imagination, fantasies of how things might be rather than how they were. These visions were rooted in particular social and political ideologies and were far from hegemonic. Indeed, they were, as we have seen, the product of factionalism and internecine conflict. What is more, there was no one single vision but rather as many projections as there were practitioners. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that the movement for medical reform was characterised

in Performing medicine
Abstract only
Steven Griggs and David Howarth

resignified in the first decade or so of the new century. Where for most of the twentieth century they were viewed as unquestioned forces for good, at the start of the twenty-first they were increasingly conceived as destructive and negative components of the modern transportation system. In developing our explanation, we have also emphasised the challenges posed to government by the power of scientific discourse and expert knowledge, which was produced and disseminated by bodies like the Environmental Audit Committee, the Sustainable Development Commission and the Tyndall

in The politics of airport expansion in the United Kingdom
Statistics and statecraft in the transition to apartheid
Deborah Posel

and answering these questions compete and coexist with one another.’ 9 For the purposes of this chapter, it is the ‘totalising’ dimensions of modern governance which are of primary interest – the ways in which modern governmentality represented the tasks of government as the technically expert management of ‘problems of population’. 10 The purpose of government evolved as the effort

in Science and society in southern Africa
Abstract only
Myrto Tsakatika

Introduction The resignation of the Santer Commission On 16 March 1999, for the first time in the history of the European project, the twenty-member College of Commissioners resigned before the end of its term. This took place under the presidency of the former Prime Minister of Luxembourg Jacques Santer, after the submission to the European Parliament (EP) of a Report by a Committee of Independent Experts, working under the auspices of the Parliament and the Commission, which substantiated allegations of fraud, mismanagement and nepotism. The Report came two

in Political responsibility and the European Union
WWI and the revolution in artificial limbs
Heather R. Perry

routine gestures of daily life, they enlisted the help of industrial scientists, mechanical engineers, and efficiency experts in designing these new prostheses. Over the course of the war, orthopaedists revolutionised the design and manufacture of artificial limbs, not simply healing the severely injured body, but ultimately restoring it.3 This chapter examines the revolution in German prosthetic technology. It examines artificial limbs before the war, and offers an analysis of why those devices were considered inadequate for sending the wounded back to work. Next the

in Recycling the disabled