, Oxford: Wiley/Blackwell.
Campbell, Colin (1999) ‘The Easternisation of the West’, in Bryan Wilson and Jamie
Cresswell (eds.), New Religious Movements: Challenges and Responses, London and
New York: Routledge.
Cleary, Joe and Claire Connolly (eds.) (2005) The Cambridge Companion to Modern IrishCulture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cresskey, James G. (2014) Harnessing Chaos: The Bible in English Religious Discourse since
1968, London: Bloomsbury Academic.
Curtius, Ernst Robert (2013) European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages, trans. Willard R.
faulty foundations and tended
to benefit the rich more than the poor. Kirby, Gibbons and Cronin produced a compelling critique of what they viewed as the dominant neo-
liberal approach to economics that encouraged people to believe that
Ireland had never had it so good, that the country had a rosy future and
that full employment and increased wealth would continue. Reinventing
Ireland: Culture, Society and the Global Economy (2002) remains one
of the best interrogations of the comfortable consensus that developed
between government, the media and business interests
Ireland. Accompanying this process, the influence of royal government from Dublin waned, particularly from the fourteenth century. Edward Bruce landed at Larne in the south of County Antrim in 1315, and the ensuing Bruce Wars lasted until his death in 1318; the Black Death killed at least one-third of the population, if not more, causing further untold numbers to relocate to better social and agricultural conditions elsewhere in Ireland (Gwynn, 1935 ). Outside of the Anglo-Irish centres, Ireland was dominated by Gaelic-Irishculture – that is, the native Irish
Spectres of Maturin; or, the ghosts of Irish Romantic fiction
removal of its English hero, Horatio Mortimer, to the horrors of
Ireland, a country he expects to find both ‘semi-barbarous’
and ‘semi-civilized’. 26 Instead, he learns to appreciate Irishculture through exposure to its people and their ways, under the
tutelage of the amazingly learned Irish princess, Glorvina, and her
family and friends. He then cements his cultural
‘conversion’ through his marriage to
of War and Revolution (Cork: Gill and Macmillan, 1998), 109; Jason Myers, The Great War and Memory in IrishCulture, 1918–2010 (California: Academica Press, 2013), 10.
John Coakley, ‘The election that made the First Dáil’, in Brian Farrell (ed.), The Creation of the Dáil (Dublin: Blackwater Press, 1994), 164.
encounter and bouleversement (reversal, violent upheaval) identified by
Ferris. Within the counterfactual schema, we can choose to see later
developers of the post-Union national tale such as Sydney Owenson and
Maria Edgeworth reacting to Wollstonecraft’s text by deliberately choosing less prodigious fictions that seek, and often achieve, the comfort of
closure. Wollstonecraft’s explosive – and, as we shall see, open-ended –
text assists us to identify with greater sharpness the persistent anxieties in
these later fictions concerning the monstrous shapes of Irishculture
did Neues Deutschland, Neue Zeit, Berliner Zeitung and the Weltbühne
think of Irishculture and what attitude did they adopt towards Bloody
Sunday in (London)Derry in 1972 and the hunger strikes in Northern
Ireland in the early 1980s? The East German television sent journalists
to report not only on the conflict in Northern Ireland but also on the
socio-economic conditions in Ireland. Was it all propaganda? A handful of Irish idealists settled in the GDR and attention is paid to their
activities. The activities of the Ireland–GDR Friendship Society are
of the Irish Civil War (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan,
One exception is I. Miller, ‘Pain, memory
and trauma in the Irish revolutionary period’, in F. Dillane,
E. Pine and N. McAreavy (eds), Memory and Trauma: The Body in
IrishCulture (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan,
society in Ireland preoccupy them too. Yet they are
heroic exemplars of the free woman, still perhaps just being born in
modern Ireland. All of them are famous in their own right and not
because of their connections to prominent families or male partners.
Their careers were facilitated by the emergence of the Irish women’s
movement and several have also made key contributions to the
feminist analysis of Irishculture. Yet they are all singular or even, in
some cases, at times apparently lonely individuals. This is no doubt
mainly due to their willingness to break with
the articulate adults, O’Faolain
and O’Gorman, who have most deeply engaged their readers. It is
instead the images of their younger selves that preoccupy and haunt
Irishculture: young Nuala and her neglected siblings who ‘used to rock
for hours at night: two children to a bed . . . arms crossed, rocking and
rocking’; young Colm, after being violently raped by Fortune, ‘trying to
pull myself together. I pulled my knees up to my chest and wrapped the
sheet tight around me, sobbing in shock and pain.’30 Viewed from the
therapeutic perspective adopted by their authors