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Open Access (free)
Gender Equality and Culture in Humanitarian Action1
Ricardo Fal-Dutra Santos

wars to protect vulnerable women and children – also constitutive of the ‘myth of protection’) motivate recruitment into military forces and help maintain their self-esteem ( Tickner, 2001 : 49, 57). These are complemented by images of ‘innocent women’ ( Carpenter, 2006 ), crucial to the image of heroic masculinity and the ‘myth of protection’, or images of ‘mothers-of-soldiering-sons’ or supporting wives and girlfriends

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe

attacks on civilian targets and their suffering. For example, it was usually appealing for Biafrans to hear that they were fighting with Britain and not Nigeria. They saw the British Prime Minister, Harold Wilson, as the real enemy of Biafrans while General Gowon [military head of the Nigerian state] was portrayed as his deputy. The USSR also gave open support to the Nigerian government. What helped Biafra so much was the kind of propaganda machine it was able to set up. The

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Fabrice Weissman

existence. In practice, secrecy helps shield local and international accountability, thus contributing to the continuation of a system that diverts aid resources to criminal organisations, their political sponsors and security and insurance companies. If there’s one deterrent against potential kidnappers, as weak as it may be, it’s publicising their crimes and their consequences. Contrary to conventional wisdom, few political and military organisations

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Emmanuelle Strub

candidates, probably because this was a new position in the NGO sector and there were few specialists. They interviewed two people with security experience in the private sector and the military; my curriculum vitae did not interest them at first. My standard humanitarian career path in NGOs and international organisations meant I had only a few months’ experience in that type of position. However, my 2002 Master’s memoire on aid workers’ security in Afghanistan (‘Quelle place

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Valérie Gorin

the GCSP [Geneva Centre for Security Policy], 15 with the military actors there. We used it also on public platforms and bilateral discussions. We used MSF people for acting, and it was powerful. VG: Would you do it again in the future? Or do you think VR is just a buzz? MG: This is an issue only because we don’t have a campaign anymore. People think we should start again – it’s still in discussion. It doesn’t mean that we have stopped addressing the issue, but just that we have turned inside to see how we can address it. It has fallen on the counterterrorism

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Mel Bunce

). Photography helped to overcome this barrier: what Scarry has called ‘pain’s inexpressibility’ and resistance to ‘verbal objectification’ ( 1987 ). During a devastating famine in India in 1876–8, a British military official took a series of photographs depicting extremely emaciated men, women and children, and these had a profound impact on the way British elites and audiences mobilised and responded to the famine ( Twomey, 2015 ). Twomey argues that this crisis introduced the practice of displaying shocking images as ‘evidence’ of bodily suffering

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings and Lauren Harris

of resources into the military and the nuclear programme, underpin the DPRK’s inability to provide for its population. The humanitarian community is unable to offer solutions that directly address the structural drivers of need. For example, documents and statements from humanitarian agencies cite environmental factors, such as mountainous terrain, a lack of arable land and dry conditions, and insufficient agricultural inputs and infrastructure as the key reasons for the DPRK’s food shortages ( FAO, 2019 ; Froberg, 2018 ; WFP, 2018 ). However, these explanations

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Anja Dalgaard-Nielsen

Part II A military role for Germany in international crisis management? The process of redefining the role of military means in Germany’s foreign and security policy can be divided into three phases. A first phase ran from German unification through 1994 when the German Constitutional Court ruled out-ofarea deployments constitutional. The second phase began with the massacre on Muslim men and boys in the enclave of Srebrenica in Yugoslavia in the summer of 1995 and ended with the Kosovo War in 1999. A third phase lasted from 1999 to the outbreak of war in Iraq in

in Germany, pacifism and peace enforcement
Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

Europe, he was photographing activities of the Bureau des Refugiées et Relief , the Bureau des Mutilés , and the Children’s Bureau in and around Paris. Given the rank of Captain, Hine was afforded many liberties in his choice of photographic subject matter that his civilian photographer counterparts did not ( Kaplan, 1988 : 65). Still under the restrictions of the military censors, Hine was guided in his photographic subject matter by the fact that he was employed by the ARC. 6 The Library of Congress holds the bulk of Hine’s European photographs, which are

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Sean Healy and Victoria Russell

.1007/978–1-4612–4618–3_9 . Mozur , P. ( 2018 ), ‘ A Genocide Incited on Facebook, with Posts from Myanmar’s Military ’, New York Times , 15 October , www.nytimes.com/2018/10/15/technology/myanmar-facebook-genocide.html (accessed 7 October 2020 ). Mulhall , J. ( 2017

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs