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Global security architectures and civil society since 9/ 11
Scott N. Romaniuk and Emeka Thaddues Njoku

. (Gordon Brown, Chancellor of the Exchequer, speech given at Chatham House, London, October 10, 2006) The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11) against the United States led to new waves of scholarship on the proliferation of terrorism and efforts to combat international terrorism groups, organizations, and networks. One of the arguments

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
Ontological, epistemological and normative issues
Sondre Lindahl

Introduction As the two preceding chapters have documented, it would not be an overstatement to suggest that Western countries embraced a kind of terrorism/counter-terrorism hyperbole after the 9/11 attacks. The almost singular focus and frenzied attention on waging war on terror was at the same time, as a recent article shows, supported by a similar singular focus and attention in academia on jihadism ( Schuurman, 2019 ). As a result, other terrorism s or forms of violent extremism were subjugated or simply ignored. However, with several attacks perpetrated

in Encountering extremism
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Politics, violence and resistance
Richard Jackson

comparable with the causes of the ‘war on terrorism’. The simple but disturbing answer was positive: the causes are broadly similar. Through a careful analysis of the official language of counter-terrorism, I discovered that the discursive strategies employed by the American and British administrations to construct the ‘war on terrorism’ were the same as those used by leaders and

in Writing the war on terrorism
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David Brown

1 Introduction On 11 September 2001, terrorism was seared into the global consciousness, as the world watched live the horrific images of hijacked planes being crashed into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. In the years that followed, Al Qaeda and Osama bin Laden have become household names, dominating the airwaves and making full use of what Margaret Thatcher once called ‘the oxygen of publicity’.1 The 24-hour global media has beamed pictures of death and destruction into our living rooms, while commentators and analysts scrutinise bin Laden’s taped

in The European Union, counter terrorism and police co-operation, 1992–2007
Wider Europe, weaker Europe?

The first European Union's (EU) enlargement of the twenty-first century coincides with a period of international tension and transition. Tensions have been apparent over: the war in Iraq, the 'War on Terror', immigration, organised crime, ethnic confrontation, human rights, energy resources and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The EU has made genuine progress in developing its security policies since the launch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This book examines the impact that enlargement will have on leadership within the EU, a pre-requisite for policy coherence. It focuses on what has been Europe's most significant region in terms of security challenges and international responses since the end of the Cold War: the Balkan. The book provides an overview of the foreign policy priorities and interests of the new member states (NMS), highlighting areas of match and mismatch with those of the EU fifteen. Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU's Third Pillar, and has been propelled to the forefront of the EU's internal agenda, driven by the demands of the 'War on Terror'. The book discusses the core elements of the EU's emerging common external border management, with a focus on the creation of the EU's new External Borders Agency and the Schengen Borders Code. While the first two are declarative partnership and declarative negativism, the last two reflect the struggle between pragmatism and Soviet-style suspicion of Western bureaucrats.

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The challenge of Eurasian security governance

Eurasian security governance has received increasing attention since 1989. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, the institution that best served the security interests of the West in its competition with the Soviet Union, is now relatively ill-equipped resolve the threats emanating from Eurasia to the Atlantic system of security governance. This book investigates the important role played by identity politics in the shaping of the Eurasian security environment. It investigates both the state in post-Soviet Eurasia as the primary site of institutionalisation and the state's concerted international action in the sphere of security. This investigation requires a major caveat: state-centric approaches to security impose analytical costs by obscuring substate and transnational actors and processes. The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon marked the maturation of what had been described as the 'new terrorism'. Jervis has argued that the western system of security governance produced a security community that was contingent upon five necessary and sufficient conditions. The United States has made an effort to integrate China, Russia into the Atlantic security system via the Partnership for Peace (PfP) programme and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. The Black Sea Economic Cooperation has become engaged in disseminating security concerns in fields such as environment, energy and economy. If the end of the Cold War left America triumphant, Russia's new geopolitical hand seemed a terrible demotion. Successfully rebalancing the West and building a collaborative system with Russia, China, Europe and America probably requires more wisdom and skill from the world's leaders.

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Bat-Ami Bar On

The initial context for this essay included the war in Afghanistan (2001–), the war in Iraq (2003–) and terrorist attacks such as those of 11 September 2001, 11 March 2004, and 7 July 2005. These events have been discursively connected by talk about ‘international terrorism’ and ‘the war on terror’, a connection hotly contested ever since it surfaced in speeches by U.S. president George W. Bush (and members of his administration) following 11 September 2001. 1 I do not here intend to contribute to the multifaceted debate about the ‘war on terror’, though

in ‘War on terror’
Globalisation, securitisation and control
Christopher Baker-Beall

4 Constructing the ‘migrant’ other: globalisation, securitisation and control Introduction This chapter explores the strand of the ‘fight against terrorism’ discourse that constructs the ‘openness’ of European Union (EU) society as an environment that terrorists seek to take advantage of, demonstrating how issues regarding migration and border control have come to occupy a key dimension of the EU counter-terrorism response. In the period before the events of 11 September 2001, migration was an important subject on the agenda of the EU in relation to the

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
Irene Chan

suppression of the Uyghur community, both internationally and domestically. Critics have pointed out that terrorism is a rhetorical tool to secure and legitimize Chinese rule over restive autonomous regions such as Tibet and Xinjiang. 2 Terrorism in China has been closely related to separatist movements in ethnic autonomous regions, particularly the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (henceforth ‘Xinjiang’). An examination of the spike in violent incidents in Xinjiang and mainland China since 2008 shows that the potential of social unrest in Xinjiang is real

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Preventing ‘radicalisation’, ‘violent extremism’ and ‘terrorism’
Christopher Baker-Beall

5 Constructing the ‘Muslim’ other: preventing ‘radicalisation’, ‘violent extremism’ and ‘terrorism’ Introduction This chapter explores the strand of the ‘fight against terrorism’ discourse that connects the threat of terrorism to ‘violent religious extremism’. The chapter focuses specifically on an EU belief that preventing terrorism is best achieved through the development of policies designed to combat the process of ‘radicalisation’. The chapter considers the emergence and evolution of the EU’s counter-radicalisation discourse. It shows how the ‘radicalisation

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism