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Sophie A. Whiting

violence. The logic in using coercive tactics is that the use of harsh policies to punish armed groups would deter future acts. The overarching rationale with this approach is that when states respond aggressively they develop a reputation for being tough on terrorism and deter further violence; whilst those states that do not respond forcefully are seen as giving in to demands, and develop a reputation for being weak.21 Alternatively, states can adopt a more conciliatory approach by focusing on the root causes of violence in an effort to reduce the ‘incentives’ to use

in Spoiling the peace?
The evolution and implications of the ‘Xinjiang mode’ of counterterrorism
Michael Clarke

‘Xinjiang mode’ of counterterrorism which combines the counter-insurgency (COIN) models adopted by the West (primarily the United States) in its ‘War on Terrorism’ with China's own ‘public security’ and ‘governance’ models to, in effect, create a counterterrorism strategy defined by militarization, surveillance, and ideological ‘remoulding’. The central objective of the ‘Xinjiang mode’ is to not only prevent ‘terrorism’ before it occurs but also to pre-empt its very possibility by identifying and ‘remoulding’ individuals who display ‘abnormal’ behaviours

in The Xinjiang emergency
Security aid, impunity and Muslim alienation
Jeremy Prestholdt

established pattern of al Shabaab actions. Events at Westgate encapsulated the recurring dynamics of terrorism and counterterrorism in Kenya. First, the attackers chose a ‘soft’ target. As in the past, this resulted in maximum media attention and a high number of civilian deaths, non-Muslims in particular. Second, despite warnings that such an attack was imminent, the assault evidenced a slow and uncoordinated response by security forces. 6 Finally, the attackers imagined their actions to be retaliation for those of Kenyan security forces domestically and in

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
The consequences of using force to combat terrorism in a liberal democrac
Aaron Edwards

6 British security policy and the Sunningdale Agreement: the consequences of using force to combat terrorism in a liberal democracy1 Aaron Edwards Throughout these difficult years, it has always been said that a solution lay in a twopronged approach: a vigorous onslaught against the terrorists, coupled with political advance. That political advance will shortly be a reality. – Rt Hon Francis Pym MP, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, speaking after the Sunningdale Conference in December 1973 (House of Commons Debates (Hansard), 13 December 1973, Vol. 866

in Sunningdale, the Ulster Workers’ Council strike and the struggle for democracy in Northern Ireland
Disputed boundaries of a postcolonial state
Evan A. Laksmana and Michael Newell

This chapter seeks to describe how Indonesia has dealt with the threat of terrorism in the post-9/11 era. However, beyond merely identifying the country's counterterror policies, the analysis is placed within the broader context of how the state has historically dealt with internal security threats. This chapter argues that, contrary to the rhetoric of the ‘war on terror’, Indonesia's counterterrorism policies are neither a specific response to transnational terror networks, nor simply a by-product of the post-9/11 era. Instead, Indonesia

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Extremism and the ‘politics of mutual envy’ in Nigeria?
Akinyemi Oyawale

Introduction Countering extremism, as a ‘softer’ approach to countering terrorism, has received heightened attention in Nigeria following the failure of erstwhile ‘hard’ approaches to combating Boko Haram. Much of the initial effort to counter Boko Haram was based on a strict coercive counter-terrorism strategy, where the Nigerian military primarily focused on forcefully vanquishing militants. In response to the various criticisms which the state received for alleged human rights violations and abuse, there has been a shift towards a more comprehensive

in Encountering extremism

recognized ‘terrorists.’ GWOT’s ‘terrorist lists’ Within this global anti-terrorism architecture, one of the most important tools for states wishing to implicate domestic opponents as enemies in GWOT is the system of international ‘terrorism lists’ that serve to recognize groups as global ‘terrorists.’ In essence, being put on such a list in the context of GWOT serves the purpose of a ‘scarlet letter,’ justifying the violent targeting of the groups and individuals in question wherever they might be located and whatever may be their actual goals and actions. While numerous

in The war on the Uyghurs
Abstract only
Christian Kaunert

. Chapter 3 investigates the construction of an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice in response to terrorism. Since the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001, the first and foremost security threat to enable the construction of the AFSJ is terrorism. Some authors have argued that it has become the ‘greatest security threat of our times’ (Hoffmann, 2006; Wilkinson, 2006 ). This chapter will argue that

in European internal security
David Brown

decision-making process ­proceeds. chap2.indd 15 26/05/2010 09:25:52 16 The European Union, counter terrorism and police co-operation Rather than view it as a one-off action, clearly establishing the objectives of the process, development can occur incrementally, allowing the initial thought process to be shaped and moulded by events or the changing nature of the decision-making base, as in the case of a widened EU membership. Others disagree, believing that to consider postponing the process of clarification to a later date ensures that the process will actually

in The European Union, counter terrorism and police co-operation, 1992–2007
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Proscribing peace
Sophie Haspeslagh

proscription regime post 9/11 has embedded an understanding of what terrorism is and who should be considered a terrorist that has deeply shaped the metanarrative around how conflicts are understood as well as how they can be resolved. Of course, vilification and dehumanisation on both sides have always played a role in conflict. But what this entailed and what was possible in terms of rhetorical shift and

in Proscribing peace