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Striking the balance
Tricia Bacon

crises are not primarily about terrorism for the U.S. They raise serious concerns about escalation and miscalculation that could lead to a nuclear confrontation between India and Pakistan. 6 These crises have produced both subsequent progress in the U.S.–India counterterrorism relationship – often leading to new initiatives and efforts to collaborate – as well as tensions, as the U.S. rarely satisfies India in its subsequent approach to Pakistan. In other words, crises caused by terrorist attacks create opportunities for

in The future of U.S.–India security cooperation
Understanding state responses to terrorism in Egypt
Dina Al Raffie

-independence Egypt, the trajectory of modern-day jihadism traces its intellectual, ideological roots to late nineteenth-century Islamic reformers and, more concretely, to the founding of the Jama‘at al-Ikhwan al - Muslimun (the Muslim Brotherhood, henceforth Ikhwan). However, it would be misleading to present jihadism in general as the primary threat to Egyptian national security interests. Although Islamic extremism has arguably constituted the primary terrorist threat to the nation state since its independence, the Egyptian conceptualization of terrorism and the way in which

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Counter-terrorism and insurgency policies and civil society in Colombia
Saúl M. Rodriguez-Hernandez and Julio- César Cepeda- Ladino

enhance their military capacities. However “US legislation at the time required that the security assistance could only be used in counter-drug training and equipment, and not for counter-terrorism” (Bruneau, 2017 : 345–346). This review of the long partnership between the United States and Colombia on security policies (counter-insurgency and

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
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Actions and actors of the Anti-terrorist Liberation Groups
Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet

brought Spain little but economic decline, regional separatism and terrorism took over the cabinet and the lower house of the Parliament, holding the deputies hostage in an attempt to overthrow the government. 2 Led by Colonel Antonio Tejero Molina and Major Ricardo Sáenz de Ynestrillas Martínez, the insurgents erupted with a blast of gunfire and ordered everyone on to the floor as the Prime Minister, Adolfo Suárez, was preparing to hand over power to his successor, Calvo Sotelo. Meanwhile, in Valencia, right

in Counter-terror by proxy
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Extradition, political offence exception and the French sanctuary
Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet

If the protection Basque terrorism found in the south of France, the French ‘sanctuary’, was to disappear, or if there was greater co-operation on the part of the French authorities, ETA would not last six months in front of the Spanish Police. Manuel Ballesteros, Director of the Spanish Counter-terrorist Unified Command, 1981 Had these indomitable Basques not

in Counter-terror by proxy
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Evil terrorists, good Americans
Richard Jackson

ONE OF THE MOST NOTICEABLE and ubiquitous features of the language of counter-terrorism is its invariable appeal to identity: terrorists are endlessly demonised and vilified as being evil, barbaric and inhuman, while America and its coalition partners are described as heroic, decent and peaceful – the defenders of freedom. The clear implication of this language is

in Writing the war on terrorism
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Euskadi Ta Askatasuna
Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet

): The War Council [Consejo de Guerra] considers that the following facts are proven: the separatist organisation ETA, which is clandestine and illegal, exists and its purposes are to disturb the internal order, to dishonour the Spanish nation and its fundamental institutions, to destroy the organisation of the State and to dismember a part of the national territory through propaganda, subversive action, terrorism and social sedition. […] ‘Zutik’, ETA's clandestine organ, is profoundly anti-Spanish and is the mouthpiece of the organisation

in Counter-terror by proxy
Aislinn O'Donnell

Introduction Why should educators need to know about policies aimed at countering terrorism, radicalisation and (violent) extremism, and how do these policies shape educational practice? The UK’s ‘Four P’ (Protect, Prevent, Pursue, Prepare) conceptualisation of the work-strands of the counter-terrorist strategy (CONTEST), together with the Dutch Information House’s development of countering violent extremism (CVE) as ‘soft interventionism’ ( Kundnani and Hayes, 2018 , p. 6), have shaped wider European and global landscapes in respect of countering (violent

in Encountering extremism
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Francoist legacy and transition to democracy
Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet

pivotal. The defence of the greater good and the emphasis on the necessity to decide promptly were reclaimed by the regime in its attempt to convert the 1939 military victory into political legitimacy. 34 The 1959 Public Order Act and the 1968 Decree on the Repression of banditry and terrorism were indeed central features of the emergency institutions under Franco. With the Law of December 1963, establishing a Court of Public Order (Tribunal de Orden Público, TOP), they provided all together a solid framework allowing

in Counter-terror by proxy
Carol V. Evans

Secretariat (NSCS) and the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) are responsible for coordinating intelligence assessments. The JIC focuses on the immediate/near-term intelligence terrorism assessments, while the NSCS is involved in policy-oriented, predictive estimates relating to national security priorities. The blossoming of India’s intelligence establishment post Kargil and Mumbai has seen India’s intelligence efforts plagued by endemic agency turf wars, duplication of collection and analysis efforts, and lack of

in The future of U.S.–India security cooperation