continuity’, while men are constructed as the progressive agents of
modernity (McClintock 1997 :
359). In an echo of the gendering of space in colonialism (the feminisation
of the territory to be occupied, possessed or penetrated), nationalist
resistance also establishes a gendering of space, so that
‘decolonization is waged over the territoriality of the female,
domestic space’ (McClintock 1997 : 360). In Algeria, as Nefissa
productively used the
idea of the ‘empire-state’ in writing of the nation, see
Gary Wilder, The French Imperial Nation-State: Negritude and
Colonial Humanism Between the Two World Wars (Chicago,
2005); Todd Shepard, The Invention of Decolonization: The
Algerian War and the Remaking of France (Ithaca, NY, 2008);
Frederick Cooper, ‘From Imperial Inclusion to Republican
pioneering black activists in Britain that formed part of what Paul Gilroy described as the Black Atlantic, the diasporic network that spanned across national boundaries and oceanic space. The NAACP, for example, featured Dr Harold Moody’s League of Coloured People, founded in 1931, in the pages of its Crisis magazine. 50 African American solidarity with nationalist movements in countries including Burma and especially India also led them to oppose a post-war American financial loan to Britain unless decolonization was made an explicit condition. 51
The rise of Enoch
involved and because they were joined by many dissident former Ottoman civil
servants and officers. Against the mass peasant movements after 1945, which
were almost always led by organized political parties and inspired by a
heady ideological mixture of social revolution and national liberation, the
methods of air substitution could achieve only limited results. It is
significant that, during the wars of decolonization, the British achieved
and Popular Culture: Bertrand Blier’s Les Valseuses (1973) ’ in Susan Hayward and Ginette Vincendeau , French Film: Texts and Contexts, 2nd edn, London and New York , Routledge , 213-26 .
Lefèbvre , Henri ( 1968 ) La Vie quotidienne dans Ie monde moderne, Paris, Gallimard .
Rigby , Brian ( 1991 ) Popular Culture in Modern France: a Study of Cultural Discourse, London and New York , Routledge .
Ross , Kristin ( 1996 ) Fast Cars, Clean Bodies: Decolonization and the
Timothy Mitchell, Colonising Egypt
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988 ), pp. 161, 177–9.
Frederick Cooper, Decolonization and African
Society: The Labor Question in French and British Africa
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996 ),
p. 9. For similar reflections see Frederick Cooper, ‘The
also Wm. Roger Louis, Ends of British
Imperialism: The Scramble for Empire, Suez and
Decolonization (London: I.B. Tauris, 2006 ).
This book follows the system of transliteration
of Arab names and words used by Heard-Bey in From Trucial States
to United Arab Emirates. Where Arab names or words have a
Amitav Ghosh and Dipesh Chakrabarty, ‘A Correspondence on Provincializing Europe’, Radical History Review , 83 (2002), 148.
Eve Tuck and K. Wayne Yang, ‘Decolonization is Not a Metaphor’, Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society , 1:1 (2012), 36; Amy L. Brandzel, Against Citizenship: The Violence of the Normative (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2016), p. 138; Elizabeth A. Povinelli, ‘The Governance of the Prior
orderly their rush to leave.
In short, the British made the calculation that
implementing partition would be the easiest way to get the nationalist
parties to cooperate in the decolonization process. That cooperation was
crucial to the British plan to project a strong image to international
observers, even – or perhaps especially – at the end of
empire. The British had a reputation to protect. In fact this
only that we are invited to support them.) That particular trick is nothing new under the sun: colonial France always promoted its altruistic role as promoter of the colonized subject’s women … Similarly, throughout the history of decolonization, anticolonial activism was frequently denounced as running the risk of endangering … the rights of those women, as those rights were promoted by the colonizing power. Already in 1988, the Indian academic Gayatri Spivak had demystified this “cause of the Other’s women” through the celebrated phrase “White men saving brown