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John Narayan

its need. They do so from external circumstances, pressure from without, as atoms combine or separate in presence of an electric charge, or as sheep huddle together from the cold. Associated activity needs no explanation; things are made that way. But no amount of aggregated collective action of itself constitutes a community … Even if “society” were as much an organism as some writers have held, it would not on that account be society. Interactions, transactions, occur de facto and the results of interdependence follow. But participation in activities and sharing

in John Dewey
Umberto Tulli

pillars: a new moral, political and military American leadership to confront Soviet communism. To the contrary, much of the Democratic establishment embraced what became the buzzword of the decade: interdependence. To them, the Cold War and its unambiguous categories had become too rigid to usefully understand an increasingly pluralistic world in which new international actors, ranging from transnational movements to international institutions, were playing an important role, and new international problems were emerging. To cope with these global transformations, they

in A precarious equilibrium
Navigating between trouble and promise
Gustaaf Geeraerts

domestic and foreign affairs; mutual interference in (traditional) domestic affairs and mutual surveillance; the rejection of force to resolve disputes and the consequent codification of rules of behaviour; the growing irrelevance of borders; and security based on transparency, mutual openness, interdependence and mutual vulnerability (Chen, 2016). In due course, the EU had developed an identity as a transformative power (Grabbe, 2006), founding its policies on values, institutions and co-operation rather than power politics. The ambition was to reshape the power

in The European Union in the Asia-Pacific
Open Access (free)
The study of European Union relations with Mercosur
Arantza Gomez Arana

that the dominant explanations for this relationship in the literature – counterbalancing the US, global aspirations, being an external federator, long-standing economic and cultural ties, economic interdependence and the Europeanization of Spanish and Portuguese national foreign policies – all fail to explain the trajectory of EU policy adequately. In particular, these accounts tend to infer the EU’s motives from its activity. Drawing extensively on primary documents, this book argues that the major developments in EU–Mercosur relations – the 1992 Inter

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Abstract only
Neil Collins and Andrew Cottey

issues. The economic interdependence of the countries was a thread through all the media commentary but, in China, in particular, the press emphasised the apparently more effective response of Beijing to the current economic crisis. President Hu himself stressed the validity of China’s chosen ‘scientific’ development path to a socialist market economy, implicitly rejecting the idea of progress as measured by Western market economic criteria alone.1 This book will outline the major features of the Chinese model and highlight its claims and challenges. A number of themes

in Understanding Chinese politics
Kuba Szreder

cultural capital (→ O is for one percent ). In this book, I sketch out a critique of the political economy of contemporary art from the wormhole perspective of the artistic → projectariat , considering COVID-19 as a catalyst that only revealed the prevailing fragility of their cherished autonomy and – supposedly – unbridled mobility. Pandemic or not, independence always stems from → interdependence and relies heavily on accessing infrastructures and technologies that sustain the seamless flow of projects. These infrastructures and technologies are maintained by the

in The ABC of the projectariat
Kuba Szreder

, self-perpetuating mobility of the creative class is exposed at moments of structural crisis, such as global pandemics, economic or ecological collapses, as they unearth the interdependence of the seemingly independent producers and their reliance on easily accessible infrastructures. Over the last three decades, the global network of contemporary art has grown exponentially in terms of its geographic scope, its social volume and density of relations. As Hans Belting has argued, the late twentieth and early twenty-first century witnessed an

in The ABC of the projectariat
Kuba Szreder

use various → opportunities at their disposal to pursue this cause. Thus, the → art workers summit in the Museum of Modern Art in Warsaw was used to jumpstart a coalition spearheading such undertakings like the → Anti-fascist Year , and a micro-grant from the EU was utilised to organise the first meeting of the international alliance of the interdependent organisations (→ I is for interdependence ), and an artistic commission was → repurposed to establish Company Drinks, a sustainable artistic enterprise (→ M is for mutualising ). In this sense, radical

in The ABC of the projectariat
Obama, Trump and the Asia Pacific political economy
Michael Mastanduno

’s two largest national economies had developed deep economic interdependence across trade, finance and investment. Particularly during the financial crisis, the Obama team encouraged the idea of joint US–China leadership in the world economy. America’s market was most significant for Chinese exports, and China’s willingness to purchase and hold US Treasury bonds reinforced for the United States the hegemonic privilege of enjoying low inflation and stable growth without having to raise taxes or sacrifice consumption or military spending. The Bush administration had

in The United States in the Indo-Pacific
Katy Hayward

because a core tenet of the Irish governmental elite’s approach to EU membership has been that it complements, even fulfils, the sovereignty of the Irish state.8 Hence, Ahern (8 January 2001) is able to encourage another small state, Malta, that Ireland’s ‘European experience’ has not lessened the ‘neutral and independentminded’ character of the Irish state. European integration and the Irish state Framework: independence through interdependence Realising independence A new approach to independence developed in official Irish nationalism in the first thirty years of EU

in Irish nationalism and European integration