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Janet L. Nelson

unsystematic to present much of a hierarchy, and anyway tended towards a personal rank ordering that was constantly contested and quite untidy, still, assumptions of hierarchy and rank were ubiquitous. 2 Geoffrey Koziol’s account of rituals of requests for pardon and favour assumes a world of unequal dyadic pairs. 3 Feudal relations are alleged to have been generalised by Carolingian rulers to reinforce kingship. 4 Power descended. 5 Law-codes differentiated the value of persons by their status and condition. 6 Recent work on the three orders of society, a ninth

in Law, laity and solidarities
Brigitte Kasten

allegedly sometimes carried to the extreme of the burning or killing of widows. 15 In the early medieval kingdoms constructed on Roman models, law-codes, some of them produced in the pre-Justinianic period, offer a perspective on the social relations of free men and women. These codes deal with stepmothers as part of the problems arising from inheritance and the protection of the rights of heirs. An enactment ascribed to the Visigothic king Euric (c.475) states that ‘if a man after his wife’s death brings a stepmother into his house, whatever property was left by his

in Law, laity and solidarities
Anna Boucher

encourages intergovernmentalism, which can lead to increased executive decision-making, and reduced opportunities for legislative engagement (Guiraudon 1997: 265–6; Simeon 1972; Smith 2005: 122–3). Despite these concerns, federalist structures also open opportunities for diversity-seeking engagement. Federalism most strongly played out in the temporary economic immigration case study (Chapter 7) where diversity-seeking groups in Canada, faced with a hostile political environment at the national level, were able to seek important legislative reforms to labour law codes in

in Gender, migration and the global race for talent
Sarah C.E. Ross
Elizabeth Scott-Baumann

sacrificed their noble blood, Nor men, nor coin she spared, to do them good. 25 30 35 40 45 50 30]  rex: king. 33]  The Salic law: the ancient Frankish civil law code, which contained a passage forbidding female succession. 37]  ne’er-run race: Helios drove the chariot of the sun in a never-ending cycle. 38]  earth had, once a year, a new old face: refers to the annual arrival of spring. 40]  phoenix: a person or thing of unique excellence or matchless beauty; a paragon. 48]  Don Anthony: António, Prior of Crato (1531–1595), a claimant to the throne of Portugal used

in Women poets of the English Civil War
The Church
Philippa Byrne

just when so out of alignment with all other measurements of law and reason. The letter is focused on the principles of law rather than the moral orientation of the judge. It is considered here for the significance of the connection, and the fact that it might provide a useful way of modelling the argument of this book. This is not a case of – it is not as simple as – theologians ‘telling’ lawyers what to do; giving instruction and awaiting the inscription of those theological ideals in law codes. It speaks to a more complex relationship; an interaction and exchange

in Justice and mercy
Emily Cock

dishonour’. 57 He accordingly concludes that a man who takes his opponent's nose wins the duel. For women, the slit nose was associated with sexual transgression. The provision of disfigurement for sexual impropriety in Ezekiel 23:25 was echoed through numerous medieval law codes. 58 Though it was removed from official early modern punishments, records studied by Laura Gowing show assailants threatening to ‘slitt your nose and mark you for a whore’. 59 In Richard Head's The Canting Academy (1673), a group of bawds who accuse a prostitute of withholding profits

in Rhinoplasty and the nose in early modern British medicine and culture
Jill Fitzgerald

remember that ‘the diploma, though written by the Church, was nevertheless presented as an act of the king’ and they must therefore be understood first and foremost as secular documents. 70 Charles Insley carries this valuation further and observes that charters, like the law codes, ‘had a very real role in the development and dissemination of English royal political and ideological agendas’. 71 Insley poses the question: ‘are the elaborate and often baroque proems of charters from the period c. 930–90 simply the academic exercises of clever

in Rebel angels
Abstract only
The British, the French and African monarchs
Robert Aldrich

‘pursuit and attainment’, combined elements of traditional animist thought, Islam and Protestant Christianity. Njoya commissioned a geographical survey of his realm and sponsored public works in the capital. He experimented with commercial farming of ostriches and new crops, and invented a machine to grind maize. He revised the Bamoun law code, reduced taxes, moderated sumptuary laws and simplified court

in Banished potentates
Abstract only
Alexandra Gajda
Paul Cavill

1563, Foxe responded by loading the massively expanded new edition of 1570 – the first to be entitled ‘the Ecclesiasticall history’ – with law-codes, printed and unprinted chronicles, letters, speeches and materials extracted from the parliament rolls.54 The editorial method of Reformation historians, however, was always shaped by a confessional agenda, rather than by a concern for correct understanding in its own right. For Harpsfield and Foxe, controversies surrounding the accuracy of historical sources were a form of confessional point-scoring.55 Thus the 11

in Writing the history of parliament in Tudor and early Stuart England
Bonnie Clementsson

Partial summary and overview, 1680–1750 Around the turn of the century in 1700, Swedish society was permeated by religious ideas. The incest prohibitions were described in Leviticus in the Bible which had, by way of its addition to the national law code in 1608, been made the norm for Swedish legislation. The crime of incest was primarily perceived as an offence against God's law, a crime which could not be atoned for in any other way than by death. Previous research has shown that the penal legislation was made more stringent in all Protestant

in Incest in Sweden, 1680–1940