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Jon Birger Skjærseth and Tora Skodvin

emphasis on sinks and flexibility mechanisms, is essentially a US construction designed to sugar the pill for US industry.18 In the event, however, the US commitment to Kyoto represented only a temporary loss of US industry influence. The industry maintained a strong influence in Congress through the Byrd/Hagel resolution. For the Kyoto Protocol to enter into force it must be ratified by 55 countries representing at least 55 per cent of global CO2 emissions in 1990. The US is responsible for about one quarter of the global emissions of GHGs and is thus a key actor in

in Climate change and the oil industry
Douglas Keesey

contemptuous of her housework, saying that she has never had the audacity to do anything but darn stockings and be frugal, that she has never earned anything. Yet her life has been subject to the 7 ‘At that time, the pill didn’t exist, there was nothing to repair the damage if damage occurred, and abortion was a crime. The only thing that parents believed they could do was to confine their children, to confine them under lock and key’. 8 ‘“vraie jeune fille” makes reference to virginity as an established and almost “market” value’. female virgins and the shaming gaze 15

in Catherine Breillat
Darren Waldron

considering how men would react should they fall pregnant. More importantly, it explicitly advocates the campaign, led by Beauvoir, to legalise abortion.11 Such political contexts are explicitly woven into the dialogues when female hairdressers and clients imagine life were men able to bear children: ‘la pilule sera en vente partout’ (‘the pill will be sold everywhere’) predicts one, ‘et ils avorteront quand ils voudront’ (‘they will abort when they want’) portends another, ‘oui, je ne vois pas le PDG abandonnant son usine pour huit mois hein, il sera avorté’ 9 Demy was

in Jacques Demy
Doris Day and Rock Hudson
Kathrina Glitre

boy.’ Notes 1 By 1968, Day’s virginal status was the subject of parody: in Where Were You When the Lights Went Out?, Day plays Margaret Garrison, an actress starring in a Broadway show called The Constant Virgin. HRCC07 179 27/4/06, 8:57 AM 180 Desire 2 This sexual risk reflects the fact that female contraception was quite limited in the 1950s; the Pill was not introduced until 1961. 3 In the fifties, the demand for telephones was so great in New York, that people sometimes had to share a telephone line: these ‘party lines’ were not necessarily connected

in Hollywood romantic comedy States of the union, 1934–65
Jane M. Adams

now prescribed for four or five weeks. You must vary the dose of the pills according to the effects they produce upon your bowels. Walk for an hour before each meal. Live upon plain meat, poultry, game, mealy potatoes, stale bread, plain puddings, eggs lightly boiled, sherry, toast and water, black tea and butter only. 21 157 Healing with water John Ruskin received similar advice, with dinner and supper to consist of meat and bread only. He was also advised to walk morning and afternoon and to go to bed early. The importance of keeping quiet and ensuring

in Healing with water
Abstract only
Horror production
Peter Hutchings

her a job. Just before he strangles her, he taunts her professional aspirations: ‘Sing for us. Sing!’ he shouts. A ribald joke made by Alan’s boss is revealing in this respect. As Alan leaves for a date with Nicole, he calls after him ‘Make sure she’s on the pill.’ The oral contraceptive, introduced in Britain in the late 1950s, had transformed the lives of many women. As Jeffrey Weeks notes: it opened up more decisively the possibility for the incorporation of the

in Hammer and beyond
The Australasian women’s advocacy press
James Keating

C. Macdonald, The Vote, the Pill and the Demon Drink: A History of Feminist Writing in New Zealand, 1869–1993 (Wellington: Bridget Williams Books, 1993), p. 33. See, for example, Daybreak , 9 February 1895, p. 3; 20 July 1895, p. 1; 17 August 1895, pp. 2–3. 32 Maria DiCenzo, Lucy Delap, and Leila Ryan criticise such ‘reductive attitudes’ toward the ‘official organ’, noting that such publications are routinely misread by scholars who suspect they fulfilled a ‘propagandist function or that they represented little more than newsletters for league activities

in Distant Sisters
Open Access (free)
Colonial subjects and the appeal for imperial justice
Charles V. Reed

incarnation he had embraced: ‘In effect it means this: that we want English rule without the Englishman. You want the tiger’s nature, but not the tiger; that is to say, you would make India English. And when it becomes English, it will be called not Hindustan but Englistan. This is not the Swaraj that I want.’ 122 To sweeten the pill of Union, the Colonial Office proposed that that the Prince of Wales go to

in Royal tourists, colonial subjects and the making of a British world, 1860–1911
Abstract only
Richard Taylor

6 February 1947. There were persistent rumours, both at the time and since, that, disheartened politically, overwhelmed with work and weakened by prolonged illness, she took her own life. There can be no definitive view on this, though the official inquest recorded a verdict of accidental death: but the overwhelming probability is that she died as a result of her illness and an accidental overdose of the pills that gave her at least some relief from her persistent asthma. In the end, she simply drove herself too hard: a tragic, heroic figure, dedicated to the

in English radicalism in the twentieth century
Ideals of men and women in the family
Angela Davis

pill was a turning point. First introduced in late 191, by 194 an estimated 40,000 women were taking the drug. Hera Cook argues the pill was novel in two ways. Firstly, it had very high effectiveness, and secondly it was under female control.2 Then in 197 abortion was legalised and local authorities were empowered to provide family planning advice and contraceptives free of charge. As a result women’s plans surrounding their optimum family size were more often realised. For example, when asked if she always knew how many children she wanted to have Jean (whose

in Modern motherhood