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The re-orientation of German orthopaedics
Heather R. Perry

1 HEALING THE WAR-DISABLED: THE RE-ORIENTATION OF GERMAN ORTHOPAEDICS Its goal is to place modern orthopaedic techniques of splint-setting and fracture bandaging, treatments for joint fractures, physical therapy, and the fitting of new prostheses, etc in the service of the military. (Dr Fritz Lange, War Orthopaedics, 1915)1 The war opened up whole new areas of specialty for orthopaedics. The treatment of gunshot fractures, their traction, methods of transport, their subsequent straightening, were all challenges which placed high demands on orthopaedic

in Recycling the disabled
Current policy options and issues
Jenny H. Peterson

4062 building a peace economy_2652Prelims 25/11/2013 15:06 Page 14 2 War economy transformation: current policy options and issues as a primary cause of a war, as one of several competing motivations to engage in violence, or simply an outcome of the supposed lawlessness that is characteristic of conflict, it is increasingly recognised that economic motivations create serious barriers to the resolution of war and the consolidation of peace. Not only a problem in terms of the causation, prolongation or intensity of conflict (Ballentine, 2003), these war

in Building a peace economy?
A biopolitical critique
Julian Reid

2935 The Biopolitics 12/9/06 11:06 Page 1 1 War and liberal modernity: a biopolitical critique I T N E S S E D from the vantage point of a twenty-first century characterised by the apparent pacification and interdependence of societies globally, liberalism would look to have proven itself the most authoritative account of the development of modern international relations. Definitive of liberalism has been its belief in the ability to establish societies through the removal of life from the condition of war and the provision of political means to allow human

in The biopolitics of the war on terror
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The future of cities and the future of war
Adam Page

1 In the next war: the future of cities and the future of war It has been borne in upon us that in the next war it may well be that that nation, whose people can endure aerial bombardment the longer and with the greater stoicism, will ultimately prove victorious. (Committee of Imperial Defence, Sub-Committee on Air Raid Precautions, 1925)1 In January 1915, German zeppelins dropped bombs on Britain for the first time. The initial reaction to the arrival of air war was shock at the apparent barbarism of an enemy willing to drop bombs on cities and civilians

in Architectures of survival
Stephen Benedict Dyson

6 Iraq – Blair’s war The decision to invade Iraq is the most controversial of Blair’s wars, undertaken without public support, and with significant disquiet among members of his government and political party. At several points it looked as though the decision to go to war could cost the prime minister his job – an incredible turn-around for a politician used to great popularity and colossal parliamentary majorities. Blair didn’t waver. Once it became clear that the Bush administration was set on its course, strong incentives existed from an alliance maintenance

in The Blair identity
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Louis Rawlings

3033 The ancient Greeks 12/7/07 13:36 Page 43 Chapter 3 The makers of war During the reign of the Egyptian pharaoh Psammetichus I (664–610 BC), a group of Greek marauders, equipped, so the story goes, as hoplites in bronze armour, landed on the Egyptian coast (Hdt. 2.152). Psammetichus, recalling an oracle that ‘bronze men’ from the sea would help him against his enemies, recruited them, and after having used them to good effect, rewarded them for their services with land near Pelusium (2.154). Their descendants, and other Greeks attracted by the rewards of

in The ancient Greeks at war
Guy Austin

Case studies: L’Arche du désert (Mohamed Chouikh, 1997), Rachida (Yamina Bachir Chouikh, 2002), Barakat! (Djamila Sahraoui, 2006) In Algeria the 1990s are known as ‘the black decade’, a period of widespread terror and trauma. Ostensibly this was a civil war, fought between the forces of the state and

in Algerian national cinema
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Thomas Hennessey

7 The long war The long war I n October 1951 the Conservatives returned to power: Winston Churchill was, once more Prime Minister and Anthony Eden his Foreign Secretary. One of the many issues – and potential divisions with the Americans – remained Korea. In mid-November, Churchill’s concern was expressed to Eden: ‘No one here knows what is going on in Korea or which side is benefiting in strength from the bombing and grimaces at Panmunjom. We must try to penetrate the American mind and purpose. We may find this out when we are at Washington. Nobody knows it

in Britain’s Korean War
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The origin of public relations
Scott Anthony

1 After the Great War: The origin of public relations Public relations today has an image problem. Seen through the prism of popular works such as Adam Curtis’s Century of the Self and Nick Davies’s Flat Earth News, public relations is a profession that has endowed sectarian interests with the ability to manipulate entire populations. Scholars tend to share this scepticism. British historians invariably track the development of propaganda techniques and systems of censorship against exceptional media flashpoints of the early twentieth century such as the Great

in Public relations and the making of modern Britain
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Custom and practice
Edward M. Spiers

A plentiful by-product of the British wars of empire in the mid- to late nineteenth century was plunder or booty, or as it became commonly known from the mid-nineteenth century term, ‘loot’ (allegedly from the Hindi word lut , to plunder). By these means artefacts from outside the UK would come to adorn, by turn, the Royal Collection, national museums, regimental museums and some stately homes across the country. With the passage of time, items of symbolic or national value have been claimed by their countries of origin (as the Afterword identifies) for

in Dividing the spoils