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Annabelle Littoz-Monnet

, in La Crise de l’Esprit (1919), pointed to what he interpreted as a renewal of European self-awareness in reaction to the First World War. In the wake of the Second World War, these ideas were further developed by resistance movements. To them, promoting European unity was the sole means of ensuring peace for the future. In the Declaration of the French Committee for a European Federation,4 the leaders of the French resistance stated that ‘the European federation . . . can only be the result of a free decision by the peoples, who in this way express their will to

in The European Union and culture
Mark Olssen

) being morally justified. What about a situation of multiple conflicting options or duties all of variable importance or significance? If for instance you are anguishing over whether you should stay and look after your ailing, elderly mother, or go and join the French resistance to fight the Germans, how will Kant’s categorical imperatives help you decide? The political or social context is not figural in Kant’s theory to establishing obligations. His categorical imperative thus has only limited practical relevance. It was in relation to the issue of inflexibility

in Constructing Foucault’s ethics
Abstract only
Ginette Vincendeau

core mystery referred back to the French Resistance. Similarly, L’Ainé des Ferchaux, despite the presence of Belmondo (and a source in a Simenon novel), departed radically from both New Wave and mainstream film noir, in a striking but idiosyncratic ode to the American South. Melville’s second gangster film period, and his most deeply noir in all senses of the term, consists of two classic policiers

in European film noir
Eurosclerosis (1959– 84) and the second phase of integration (1985– 2003)
Peter J. Verovšek

crucial that she preserve her sovereignty, so that she could continue her traditions and eventually return to greatness. 16 These considerations underlie de Gaulle’s famous appeal on the BBC following the news that France had officially requested an armistice with Germany on 18 June 1940. In it, he claimed to be the personification of the French resistance and called on the remaining French forces to rally to him. In saying the words ‘ nous sommes la France ’ the General meant it literally: ‘in his view Free France was France, and he was the head of a sovereign

in Memory and the future of Europe
Caroline Sturdy Colls and Kevin Simon Colls

. 116 GARF, Fond 7021, Opis 149, Delo 167, ‘Appendix 1’, 10 June 1945. 117 The memoirs of a French resistance fighter ‘Glaize’ cited in Bunting, The Model Occupation , p. 290. 118 Albert Eblagon interviewed in Steckoll, The Alderney Death Camp , p. 49; ‘Kirill Nevrov’, in Cohen, The Jews in the Channel Islands , p. 22.

in 'Adolf Island'

repatriated, they still faced the prospect of incarceration on their return, in spite of the fact that many risked their lives to escape back to their homeland. 155 Details about the journeys of a group of men from the Orel region in Russia, formerly housed in Alderney, are recalled at length by Bonnard and Bunting but are worth summarising here as they represent the plight of many labourers who tried to return home. 172 Having become members of the French resistance after their release from Alderney, two of

in 'Adolf Island'
Neil Cornwell

shall return to such labelling shortly. Yet another term suggested by Segal (452) is ‘Beckett’s theatre of inadequacy’. Further shades of the absurd The Kharmsian trace While Kharms’s literary career was first suppressed, and then terminated in appalling circumstances, he and (the early) Beckett were close contemporaries. Beckett was born just four months after Kharms; and when Kharms died of malnutrition (in a psychiatric prison hospital, early in 1942), Beckett was active in the French resistance, and beginning to think of engaging, too, with Watt. It seems quite

in The absurd in literature
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

in the present EU member states – a nonuniform CAP giving less to the farmers of the new entrants might be the only way out. The 1999 Berlin Summit, as described earlier in this chapter, showed that resistance against changes to CAP payments was fierce, not only from EU members that stood to gain the most, but also from strong and well-organised farming interests. Another idea – the ‘renationalisation’ of the CAP (i.e. its abandonment) – was floated by Germany in the leadup to the Berlin Summit, but it was abandoned after heavy French resistance. Given the

in Destination Europe
Duy Lap Nguyen

, culture, politique, économie, géopolitique (Paris: Harmattan, 2009), 208. 20 See Majid Fakhry, A History of Islamic Philosophy, 3rd ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004), 386. 21 Seth Armus, “Primacy of the Spiritual: French Resistance to America and the Formation of French Identity” (Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York: Stony Brook, 1998), 112. 22 Emmanuel Mounier, “Débat à Haute Voix,” Esprit, 119:2 (1946), 165. 23 Tony Judt, Past Imperfect: French Intellectuals, 1944–1956 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: California University Press, 1992), 155

in The unimagined community
Parameters of Jewish identity
Joseph McGonagle

to be twinned symbolically with the memory of a child killed during the Holocaust, and a year earlier the proposed annual reading in French lycées of the last letter written by Guy Môquet, the 17-year-old French communist militant executed in 1941 and historically seen as a symbol of the French Resistance. Although greeted by some as important contributions to France’s ongoing devoir de mémoire, for others such initiatives reeked of political opportunism by Sarkozy, whose proposals were seen by critics as tantamount to a political instrumentalisation of history

in Representing ethnicity in contemporary French visual culture