, London and Belfast believed that the UN could play no useful role and opposed the tabling of a formal resolution. The advent of rapprochement and functional cooperation with Terence O’Neill’s administration during the mid-1960s would provide an additional reason not to antagonise the British or Northern Ireland Governments. Privately, the Minister 72 From Partition to Brexit for External Affairs, Frank Aiken, conceded that UN General Assembly resolutions were of ‘little or no value’ as they were not binding. To support his claim, the Tánaiste cited the number of
unanimous General Assembly resolution, but at the same time violate the rule in question in their internal domain, their aforementioned declarations are not weighed against concrete acts and do not therefore amount to usus . As true as this may be, it cannot be doubted that such declarations are not made without consideration of their legal effect, and even if ‘concrete’ practice is absent they are
Vivir” [ 2017 ] Cadernos do CEAS: Revista crítica de humanidades 327 , 330 . 37 United Nations General Assembly, “Resolution 2625 (XXV). Declaration on Principles of International
from twenty-one to thirty-two, it became an arena for North–South confrontation, with developing countries having the power to impose their agenda on the Commission. A similar development took place in the General Assembly, where Third World countries’ numerical superiority was indisputable. The adoption of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination in 1965 inaugurated an era in which Third World countries set the UN agenda. By 1974, more than 10 per cent of all General Assembly resolutions attacked apartheid and other forms of racial
roughly US$83 million; see Staples, Birth of Development , p. 120. 162 Olav Stokke, The UN and Development. From Aid to Cooperation , Bloomington, IN, 2009, pp. 251–300; United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1496 (XV) on Provision of Food Surpluses to Food-deficit People through the United Nations
revolution of 1952. 29 In March 1965 Tunisia's president Habib Bourguiba expressed unprecedented ideas and suggested that the Arab world recognize Israel on the condition that it accepted UN General Assembly resolutions 181 (the Partition Plan, 1947) and 194 (on the Palestinian refugee problem, 1948). 30 Avnery saw this as a dramatic step and devoted numerous reports to Bourguiba's initiative, criticizing Israel for its lack of response
, to public service in his country.’ 181 J. Crawford, ‘Democracy in international law’, 64 British Yearbook of International Law (1993) 3. 182 The wording is taken from a General Assembly Resolution on Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion in 1979. GA
This chapter deals with the use of force in the related fields of international terrorism and weapons of mass destruction. It discusses in the first place to what extent the notion of self-defence adequately protects States against international terrorism. Linking the armed attack already consumed with the possible military reaction would lead to the repudiation of the defensive character of self-defence. The chapter considers the lawfulness of anti-terrorist military action on the ground of necessity. The lawfulness of armed reprisals intended to curb international terrorism can be neither excluded nor upheld on the basis of theoretical or formal arguments. Finally, the chapter considers collective and unilateral measures taken in order to ensure compliance with disarmament obligations, neutralise threats involving weapons of mass destruction and curb the proliferation and trafficking of these weapons.
más’: The Report of the Argentine National Commission on the Disappeared (CONADEP), 1984, Recommendations and Conclusions, available at: < http://www.nuncamas.org/index2.htm >, and see ‘Guatemala: memory of silence’, Commission for Historical Clarification, Conclusions and Recommendations, para. 89, available at: < http://hrdata.aaas.org/ceh/report/english/toc.html >. 358 General Assembly Resolution (GA Res.) 47/133, 18 December 1992, and see R. Brody and F. González, ‘ Nunca más: an analysis of international instruments on “disappearances”’, HRQ, 19 (1997), 365
This chapter discusses Article 8(2)(b) of the Rome Statute. It covers the origins and development of Article 8(2)(b)(i) Attacking civilians; Article 8(2)(b)(ii) Attacking civilian objects; Article 8(2)(b)(iii) Attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission; Article 8(2)(b)(iv) Excessive incidental death, injury or damage; Article 8(2)(b)(v) Attacking undefended places; Article 8(2)(b)(vi) Killing or wounding a person hors de combat; Article 8(2)(b)(vii) Improper use of a flag of truce, of the flag or of the insignia and uniform of the enemy or of the United Nations, as well as of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions; Article 8(2)(b)(viii) Deportation or transfer of population; Article 8(2)(b)(ix) Attacking protected objects; Article 8(2)(b)(x) Mutilation or medical or scientific experimentation; Article 8(2)(b)(xi) Treacherously killing or wounding; Article 8(2)(b)(xii) Denying quarter; Article 8(2)(b)(xiii) Destroying or seizing the enemy's property; Article 8(2)(b)(xiv) Depriving nationals of the hostile party of rights or actions; Article 8(2)(b)(xv) Compelling participation in enemy military operations; Article 8(2)(b)(xvi) Pillaging; Article 8(2)(b)(xvii) Employing poison or poisoned weapons; Article 8(2)(b)(xviii) Employing prohibited gases, liquids, materials or devices; Article 8(2)(b)(xix) The use of expanding bullets; Article 8(2)(b)(xx) Employing weapons, projectiles or materials or methods of warfare to be listed in an annex to the Statute; Article 8(2)(b)(xxi) Committing outrages upon personal dignity; Article 8(2)(b)(xxii) Rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilisation, or sexual violence; Article 8(2)(b)(xxiii) Using protected persons as shields; Article 8(2)(b)(xxiv) Attacking objects or persons using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions; Article 8(2)(b)(xxv) Starvation as a method of warfare; and Article 8(2)(b)(xxvi) Using, conscripting or enlisting children.