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Susanne Martin and Leonard Weinberg

6 Conclusions and forecasts This effort to understand the place of terrorism in twenty-first century warfare began with a review of the explanations for why terrorism may have been used during discrete phases of insurgencies, as proposed by revolutionary theorists such as Mao, General Giap, and others. Current circumstances suggest a more complicated picture, however, than these theorists supposed. It may be that the strategies of insurgent groups have changed over time. The causes may lie in the enormous population shift from rural to urban and the increasing

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare
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A. J. Coates

14 Counterterrorism Countering terrorism effectively and at the same time ethically presents a formidable challenge. In the pursuit of an effective strategy counterterrorist forces are often led to adopt morally questionable means. The realist might argue that this is further evidence of the fundamental incompatibility of war and morality; terrorism cannot be defeated without betraying (albeit temporarily and in extremis) the values that the counterterrorist is fighting to uphold. And yet a case can be made (partly on realist grounds) that the most effective way

in The ethics of war
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The impact of security policy on civil society in the United States
William A. Taylor

Introduction This chapter explores the critical relationship between counter-terrorism policy and civil society in the United States, which is a contested arena in which counter-terrorism policy has impacted civil society and vice versa. There exists extensive literature on securitization, which provides the theoretical framework within which this

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
In the hyphen of the nation-state
Author: Shailja Sharma

The book analyses why religious and racial minorities in Britain and France are unable to integrate into the nation-state. By examining their religious and cultural integration as well as their postcolonial status, I make the argument that historical attitudes towards postcolonial minorities make it very hard for them to be integrated into national life even as they become legal citizens.

Life struggles, liberal modernity, and the defence of logistical societies
Author: Julian Reid

This is a book which aims to overturn existing understandings of the origins and futures of the War on Terror for the purposes of International Relations theory. As the book shows, this is not a war in defence of the integrity of human life against an enemy defined simply by a contradictory will for the destruction of human life as commonly supposed by its liberal advocates. It is a war over the political constitution of life in which the limitations of liberal accounts of humanity are being put to the test if not rejected outright.

From armed conflict to Brexit
Author: Eamonn O'Kane

The peace process in Northern Ireland has been widely praised for resolving the longest running post-war conflict in Europe. However, there is often misunderstanding about what happened in Northern Ireland and why. Drawing on a wide range of sources, this book offers an analysis of the origin, development and outcome of the peace process. It argues that the changes that Northern Ireland experienced from the early 1990s can only be understood if they are examined in the context of the time in which they occurred. It challenges some of the criticisms of the peace process that have emerged in recent years and argues these are based on either a misunderstanding of the purpose of the process or on information that was not available to the main actors at the time. The peace process was primarily an attempt to persuade those groups using violence to abandon their armed campaigns, rather than a specific attempt to create a fairer or more just society. The question became how this could be achieved and at what cost? The book charts and explains the ongoing challenges faced by Northern Ireland as it seeks to transition from a conflict to a post-conflict society. It highlights the lack of trust that has been a continuing and, at times, debilitating feature of the region’s politics since 1998. It concludes by considering the extent to which Brexit offers a challenge that might undermine the progress that has been made during Northern Ireland’s ‘messy’ and unpredictable peace process.

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Visual media and political conflict
Editors: Jens Eder and Charlotte Klonk

Still and moving images are crucial factors in contemporary political conflicts. They not only have representational, expressive or illustrative functions, but also augment and create significant events. Beyond altering states of mind, they affect bodies, and often life or death is at stake. Various forms of image operations are currently performed in the contexts of war, insurgency and activism. Photographs, videos, interactive simulations and other kinds of images steer drones to their targets, train soldiers, terrorise the public, celebrate protest icons, uncover injustices, or call for help. They are often parts of complex agential networks and move across different media and cultural environments. This book is a pioneering interdisciplinary study of the role and function of images in political life. Balancing theoretical reflections with in-depth case studies, it brings together renowned scholars and activists from different fields to offer a multifaceted critical perspective on a crucial aspect of contemporary visual culture.

Tensions between democracy and homeland security
Aries A. Arugay

2001, the Philippines became a frontline state in the fight against terrorism in Southeast Asia (Radics, 2004 ). Multiple bombings in urban areas as well as in Mindanao caused the government to take terrorism seriously as a homeland security threat. The links between al-Qaeda and local secessionist movements such as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) became so obvious

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
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State terrorism, deceptive organisation and proxy
Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet

! José Amedo Foucé, former Police superintendent, 2018 Terrorism has, in the past three decades or so, become the focus for much innovative work across social sciences. Having long been considered a topic of little academic moment, terrorism has become an issue of major scholarly concern. The outcome has been a sudden and massive increase in the quality and quantity of work conducted in the field, very much characterised by sharp differences of emphasis and interpretations, reflecting the varying disciplinary backgrounds and

in Counter-terror by proxy
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Reproducing the discourse
Richard Jackson

So FAR I HAVE EXAMINED the primary narratives at the heart of the ‘war on terrorism’ – the way in which language constructs the events of September 11, 2001, and the way it creates identities, threats and the counter-terrorist war. In this sense, I have been examining the constituent parts that taken together make up the whole. In order to take the analysis to the

in Writing the war on terrorism