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Andrew Patrizio

less nihilistic and more methodological interest, can we ask what kind of ecocritical art history could be written using and adapting his concepts of mutualism and nonhierarchy? Kropotkin’s boldest contribution in his writing was to link thousands of years of human sensibility and sociability with deep evolutionary, ‘pre-human’ preferences founded on the importance of mutualism. His worldview was not generated in the study alone, but drew on observations from a range of civilisations that he had directly witnessed: from Scotland and Turkey to Caucasia, Afghanistan

in The ecological eye
Zeynep Devrim Gürsel

the world, and in so doing they also become mediators of our imagination. This volume brings together research on many kinds of image brokers, from soldiers to activists, drone operators to terrorists. Here I focus on professionals who broker news images and the institutions in which this brokerage takes place. Against the backdrop of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and the industry-​ wide transition from analogue to digital technologies, I conducted fieldwork at significant points of production, distribution and circulation of international news images in the

in Image operations
John M. MacKenzie

. In the eighteenth century, with the decline of the Mughals, the city became prey to rival states, attacked by the Afghan ruler in 1765 and then the subject of a fierce contest between the Marathas and the Sikhs. It became an important city under the Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh, but by then its Mughal gardens and buildings were in decay. The British took it at the end of the Second Sikh War in 1849 and it became the 38 Construction and destruction capital of their Punjab province. The British squatted in and converted some of its buildings and destroyed others if they

in The British Empire through buildings
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Jens Eder and Charlotte Klonk

imminent invasion in Afghanistan and demonstrating their support for Osama bin Laden. The photo is part of a complex chain of images. The photograph shows a poster, which already re-​mediates several pictures of bin Laden. Strangely, however, these pictures include another figure: Bert, the grumpy character from the children’s television show Sesame Street. How could this happen? At first, Bert’s appearance went unnoticed even by Reuters, but soon he ended up in news reports by CNN and Fox. It turned out that the poster publisher downloaded the images from the Internet

in Image operations
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Assassinations and bomb attacks in the late nineteenth and early twenty-first centuries
Charlotte Klonk

war in Iraq and a traumatic military intervention in Afghanistan. According to Louise Richardson, the fears provoked by this attack were disproportionate to the actual threat: At home Americans became convinced that it was unsafe to fly, even though the facts clearly indicated otherwise. For the ten years from 1992 through 2001, including the deaths on 9/11, the risk of death while flying in the US was one in ten million or one in every 15 billion kilometres travelled. Instead Americans took to their cars, an altogether more dangerous form of transport

in Terror
Gender, migration, and refugee arts
Rachel A. Lewis

Parliament as well as at the Riverside Studios in London – grapples with the question of what ‘home’ means in the context of exile and displacement. The women involved in the project come from a variety of countries, including Eritrea, Afghanistan, Iran, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Zimbabwe, Somalia, Burundi, Iraq, and Cameroon. As so-called ‘failed’ asylum seekers, many of the refugee women featured in Home Sweet Home are destitute, having spent months – and in some cases, years – living on the streets while fighting the UK asylum system; forced to move

in Art and migration
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

power. For example, Philip Ball points out that the highly valued blue, lapis lazuli (also known as ultramarine, because it came from ‘beyond the sea’), was more common in Italy than in northern Europe during the Renaissance, because it arrived from Afghanistan and elsewhere through Italian ports. Michael Baxandall’s classic social history of Italian painting gives a marvellous insight into how the value and price of the precious mineral played out in the fifteenth century, in the detail of a 1485 contract for Domenico Ghirlandaio’s Adoration of the Magi (in the

in Austerity baby
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Caroline Turner and Jen Webb

placed on figurative art, she writes, ‘Calligraphy and the genre of landscape painting were swiftly appropriated as being suitable,’ but ‘not a single woman artist took up calligraphy or changed her mode of working to bring it in line with official State policy.’29 This assertion by women Worldmaking in art artists of their rights was the more courageous once Zia’s tyranny was guaranteed international support when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in December 1979. Increasingly unfree Pakistan became an invaluable ally of the ‘free world’, as perceived by

in Art and human rights
Displacement of people

( 2017 ), 1–18 ; J. Goodhand , ‘Corrupting or Consolidating the Peace? The Drugs Economy and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding in Afghanistan’ , International Peacekeeping , 15 ( 2008 ), 405–423 ; J. Bergeron , ‘Transnational Organised Crime and International Security: A Primer’ , The RUSI Journal , 158 ( 2013

in International law in Europe, 700–1200
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A thousand contradictions
Marc James Léger

continues unabated as the White House declared in September 2014 that the US would spend more than $1 trillion over the next decade to upgrade its nuclear weapons capability, and this as the US and its willing executioners are operating in more than 120 countries and deeply involved in military conflicts in more that six regions of the globe, from Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria, to Yemen, Jordan, the Gulf monarchies, Egypt, Libya, Somalia, Niger, Chad, Congo, Liberia, Korea, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia, and across the Pacific. Meanwhile, on the domestic front, the Donald Trump

in Vanguardia