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The authors investigate the timing of insurgents’ use of terrorism within the context of wider-scale warfare. Unlike the great wars found in modern history, the dominant form of warfare in recent years has become internal. The main actors are non-state groups seeking to replace an existing political order through violent means. Terrorism, especially indiscriminate attacks on unarmed civilians, has been an important component of these groups’ tactical repertoires. The purpose of this study is to explore variations in the timing of insurgents’ use of terrorism within the context of war. The authors draw on the largely separate literatures on terrorism and warfare as well as complementary sources of data on terrorist events, insurgent groups, and various forms of armed conflict. The product of this analysis is a mapping of the frequencies of terrorist attacks over time and the identification of these attacks as occurring during the beginning, middle, or ending stages of wider-scale warfare. This is followed by in-depth discussions of the insurgent groups whose use of terrorism matches each of these patterns as well as the contexts within which these groups operate. Readers of this book will include students, scholars, policy-makers, members of the military, and the general public.

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Coins and the creation of new national identities
Catherine Eagleton

, but also because many countries maintained strong business links with Britain and the sterling area. 5 Moreover, although many have interpreted Nkrumah’s actions in putting himself on the new coins as evidence of resistance and redefinition, and as showing Ghana’s separation from Britain and from colonial rule, there was also opposition within Ghana – more than in Britain or

in Cultures of decolonisation
Open Access (free)

‘Circulation’ is a popular way to describe how money works. One metaphor suggests that money irrigates economies as water irrigates land. This metaphor is so popular that someone even built a machine to illustrate the flow of money. If you ever happen to be in the city of Wellington, you can visit the MONIAC machine on display at the Reserve Bank of New Zealand. In this part, our three contributors press you to consider deeper meanings circulated by coins, banknotes and other financial assets. Catherine Comyn ( Chapter 4

in The entangled legacies of empire
An ad hoc response to an enduring and variable threat
Rashmi Singh

insurgency make analysing terrorism and CT in India immensely challenging, and the confusion between these two categories is plainly reflected in India's CT and counterinsurgency (COIN) responses, which are at times indistinguishable, much to the detriment of both. Thus, rather incomprehensibly, India's CT doctrine tends to be framed in the population-centric ‘hearts and minds’ rhetoric that traditionally underpins COIN rather than CT strategies. At the same time, despite this hearts and minds rhetoric, India's response to both pure terrorism and insurgencies that use

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
What is this liquid in 'liquid modernity’?
Ali Rattansi

the radical novelty of postmodernity as a ‘social system’, and on its ‘sociality’ as a radically new ‘habitat’ requiring a new kind of sociology to give those who wished to see in his thinking an ‘end of modernity’ thesis enough grounds for their judgement. It is also the case that there were occasions on which Bauman could not have been clearer that in his view postmodernity was a phase within modernity, that is, that we are now living in ‘modernity without illusions’, and that that is what he meant by postmodernity. Coining the concept of ‘liquid modernity’ was a

in Bauman and contemporary sociology
Roger II’s silver ducalis
Sarah Davis-Secord

across southern Italy, even closing in on the borders of Roman territory. He then retired to Ariano and issued a series of edicts, among them a coinage reform. No great fan of Roger II, Falco particularly disdained the king’s monetary policy. 2 He complained that the king made a twofold error: he both outlawed a good coin (the romesina ) and introduced a bad one (the silver ducat or ducalis ). 3 This ‘terrible edict’ brought poverty, death and misery to the entire population of Italy, according to Falco, and caused the locals to wish for Roger’s deposition or

in Rethinking Norman Italy
A case study from Counter-Reformation Spain
Katrina B. Olds

Local antiquaries and the expansive sense of the past: a case study from Counter-Reformation Spain 8 Katrina B. Olds Local Spanish antiquaries, like their counterparts elsewhere in early modern Europe, collected inscriptions, coins and other evidence of their communities’ origins, conflictive medieval past and glorious present. Yet they also apprehended the past from a comparatively expansive perspective, one that admitted Punic, Ibero-Celtic, Arabic and ‘Gothic’ evidence for consideration alongside Greco-Roman antiquities. During the seventeenth century

in Local antiquities, local identities
The Queen’s currency and imperial pedagogies on Australia’s south-eastern settler frontiers
Penelope Edmonds

For the Aboriginal people that Adeney met that day, probably Wathawurrung peoples of the Geelong area, the visage on the coin was merely that of a white woman. The encounter continued: ‘[W]‌here you quamby [sleep]?’ One of the Aboriginal men asked Adeney. ‘Geelong

in Mistress of everything
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Reading early modern illustrations
Stephen Orgel

Roman printer Giacomo Mazzocchi published a volume of portraits of famous ancients derived from his own coin collection; the book is discussed in an essay by Sean Keilen, who called it to my attention. 2 Each woodcut is provided with a brief biography by the distinguished historian of Roman antiquities Andrea Fulvio. The book, entitled simply Illustrium Imagines , appeared

in Spectacular Performances
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Tommy Dickinson

distribution of the disease. With more than 90 per cent of reported cases coming from intravenous drug users, gay and bisexual men, the community expressed not only its fears about contagion but also its moral judgement. Before the term ‘AIDS’ was first coined in 1982, it had been labelled ‘Gay Cancer’ or ‘GRID’ (Gay-related immune deficiency), and there was a strong sense that the condition was associated with sexual identity rather than sexual practice. Just under a decade after homosexuality had been demedicalised, the power of the medical profession was being brought

in ‘Curing queers’