Gaelic Catholicism and the Ulster
In the historiography of early seventeenth-century Ireland the Ulster
plantation has assumed a paradigmatic role. Military defeat in 1603
was followed by the flight of the earls and expropriation of the lands
of the Catholic Irish and colonisation by Protestant Scots and English.
There is certainly contemporary evidence to support this sort of view
of seventeenth-century Ulster. From the perspective of the native Irish,
the Annals of the Four Masters, written in the 1630s, characterised the
Irish diaspora Catholicism in
In their global faiths as in their insular polities, the experiences of the
Irish at home entailed a series of unstable ‘identities’ to ease relations
with others. This was so despite their obligation of due deference to
political authority, regardless of those exercising it. The search for
status and prestige imposed choreography of positioning in social life
which weakened any consistent outward witness to Catholic values.
Impoverished political identities exacerbated this, regardless of their
Irish political Catholicism from the
1530s to 1660
The reconstruction of the institutions of the Irish polity attendant
upon Henry VIII’s pursuit of imperium in the 1530s presented his Irish
subjects, both old and new, with fundamentally new political realities.
The introduction of Reformation via the parliament of 1536–37, and
the elevation of the Irish lordship into a kingdom in 1541, began the
slow transformation of the island’s religio-political landscape. Of more
immediate consequence though was the destruction of the Fitzgeralds
The Catholic right, political Catholicism
The Catholic right in Germany
In 1920, Hermann Freiherr von Lüninck assessed the political landscape of the Weimar Republic in his ‘Thoughts on Centre Party
politics’.1 He believed that large sections of the nobility, peasantry,
academia and elements among the clergy felt alienated by the Centre
Party’s cooperation with social democracy. In order to create the envisioned Christian conservative party, Lüninck hoped to draw
conservatives to the Centre
the years between the First World War and the Second World War.
American and European Catholics began strongly positing the need for greater transatlantic ties in the years immediately following the First World War. Scholars have just begun to demonstrate the transatlantic turn of Roman Catholicism after the First World War. Though the subject is certainly too vast to address in its fullness here, a few factors deserve special mention. First, the growing visibility and internationalization of the Holy See, which by the early post-war years had
This article examines the ways in which James Herbert‘s The Spear (1978) attempted to combine nineteenth century gothic with the contemporary thriller. The novel deals with the activities of a neo-Nazi organisation, and the essay draws parallels between Herberts deployment of National Socialism and the treatment of Roman Catholicism in earlier Gothic texts. Contextualising the novel within a wider fascination with Nazism in 1970s popular culture, it also considers the ethical difficulties in applying techniques from supernatural Gothic to secular tyranny.
Catholicism and Nonconformity in Nineteenth-Century ‘Jewish Conversion’ Novels
This article examines English Evangelical novels focused on the conversion of Jewish characters, published from the 1820s to the 1850s. It concentrates particularly on the way these novels emphasised the importance of the Church of England in constructing national and religious identity, and used Jewish conversion as a way to critique Catholicism and Nonconformity. Jewish worship, rabbinic authority and Talmudic devotion were linked to Roman Catholic attitudes towards priesthood and tradition, while Jews were also portrayed as victims of a persecuting Roman Church. Nonconformity was criticised for disordered worship and confusing Jews with its attacks on respectable Anglicanism. As a national religion, novelists therefore imagined that Jews would be saved by a national church, and often linked this to concepts of a national restoration to Palestine. This article develops and complicates understandings of Evangelical views of Jews in the nineteenth century, and their links to ‘writing the nation’ in popular literature.
Catholicism as System in Charles Maturin‘s Melmoth the Wanderer
Dermot A. Ryan
This essay casts a new light on the anti-Catholicism of Charles Robert Maturin‘s gothic novel Melmoth the Wanderer by reading it as part of a larger assault on systems in the wake of the French Revolution. Maturin‘s attack on the stupendous system of Catholicism contributes to a broader conservative polemic against all forms of international governance. Melmoth the Wanderer‘s portrait of the Church offers us an early instance of modern conservatisms archnemesis: an international system that conspires to rule the world.
Elizabeth Gaskell used Gothic as a symbolic language to explore the dark side of Unitarian thought. She explores, in rationalist terms, evils origins, effects, and remedy, using Gothic tropes as metaphors for humanly created misery. Gaskell locates the roots of ‘evil’ in an unenlightened social order – in ‘The Crooked Branch’ erroneous parenting, and in ‘The Poor Clare’ wider social structures, both distorted by the ideology of privilege. ‘The Poor Clare’ also engages with the tension between moral determinism and personal responsibility, and defends a Unitarian salvation. This tale also demonstrates Gaskell‘s views on aspects of Roman Catholicism.
William Tyndale, the Bible translator and Reformation martyr, enjoyed a sudden
revival of interest in the mid-nineteenth century. This article examines one
important aspect of his Victorian rehabilitation – his memorialization in stone
and bronze. It analyses the campaigns to,erect two monuments in his honour – a
tower on Nibley Knoll in Gloucestershire, inaugurated in 1866; and a statue in
central London, on the Thames Embankment, unveiled in 1884. Both enjoyed wide
support across the political and ecclesiastical spectrum of Protestantism, and
anti-Catholicism was especially prominent in the first initiative. Both
monuments emphasized the blessings of the Bible in English, the importance of
religious liberty, and the prosperity of England and the Empire as a result of
its Reformation heritage. The article argues that controversy concerning
Tractarianism and biblical criticism was brushed under the carpet, and Tyndales
distinctive evangelical theology was deliberately downplayed, in order to
present the martyr as a unifying figure attractive to a broad Protestant