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Chloe Campbell

In this chapter, the effects of biological thinking on attitudes towards African development and social policy in Kenya will be explored using juvenile delinquency, intelligence testing and mental health as examples. Debates about juvenile delinquency and criminal insanity were domestic aspects of a wider eugenic debate about African educability and social progress, but

in Race and empire
Norman Geras

01 Crimes Against Humanity 001-031 3/12/10 10:10 Page 1 1 Origins and development It is an important principle of the rule of law that there is no crime except under law, that is, except when an action is in breach of some obligatory norm passed or recognized as being one by the body or bodies with proper authority so to pass or recognize it. Most generally this has meant that crimes are crimes under one or another system of municipal law and, since the origin of the modern state, that the definition and the punishment of crime have been seen as being the

in Crimes against humanity
Transcendence, sacrifice, and aspiration

This innovative and timely reassessment of political theology opens new lines of critical investigation into the intersections of religion and politics in contemporary Asia. Political Theologies and Development in Asia pioneers the theo-political analysis of Asian politics and in so doing moves beyond a focus on the (Post-)Christian West that has to date dominated scholarly discussions on this theme. It also locates ‘development’ as a vital focus for critical investigations into Asian political theologies. The volume includes contributions by leading anthropologists, sociologists, and political scientists. Each chapter brings new theoretical approaches into conversation with detailed empirical case studies grounded in modern Asia. Not only does the volume illustrate the value and import of this approach to a diverse set of contemporary Asian societies and religions, but it also provides a forceful argument for why political theology itself requires this broader horizon to remain relevant and critical. The focus on ‘development’ – conceptualised broadly here as a set of modern transnational networks of ideas and practices of improvement that connect geographically disparate locations¬¬ – enables a fresh and critical analysis of the ways in which political theology is imagined, materialised, and contested both within and beyond particular nation-states. Investigating the sacred dimensions of power through concepts of transcendence, sacrifice, and victimhood, and aspiration and salvation, the chapters in this collection demonstrate how European and Asian modernities are bound together through genealogical, institutional, and theo-political entanglements, as well as a long history of global interactions.

Gordon Pirie

The Secretary of State’s flight to India aboard an Imperial Airways aeroplane in 1926/27 was only one step toward the creation of Empire airways. Empire route development took place in stages. The network was not laid out in one grand sweep even though the guiding dream was always two imperial trunk lines, one to South Africa, and one to India and Australia (a commercial

in Air empire
A necessary dialogue

The substantive and methodological contributions of professional historians to development policy debates was marginal, whether because of the dominance of economists or the inability of historians to contribute. There are broadly three ways in which history matters for development policy. These include insistence on the methodological principles of respect for context, process and difference; history is a resource of critical and reflective self-awareness about the nature of the discipline of development itself; and history brings a particular kind of perspective to development problems . After establishing the key issues, this book explores the broad theme of the institutional origins of economic development, focusing on the cases of nineteenth-century India and Africa. It demonstrates that scholarship on the origins of industrialisation in England in the late eighteenth century suggests a gestation reaching back to a period during which a series of social institutional innovations were pioneered and extended to most citizens of England. The book examines a paradox in China where an emphasis on human welfare characterized the rule of the eighteenth-century Qing dynasty, and has been demonstrated in modern-day China's emphasis on health and education. It provides a discussion on the history of the relationship between ideology and policy in public health, sanitation in India's modern history and the poor health of Native Americans. The book unpacks the origins of public education, with a focus on the emergency of mass literacy in Victorian England and excavates the processes by which colonial education was indigenized throughout South-East Asia.

This book analyses the use of the past and the production of heritage through architectural design in the developmental context of Iran. It is the first of its kind to utilize a multidisciplinary approach in probing the complex relationship between architecture, development, and heritage. It uses established theoretical concepts including notions of globalism, nostalgia, tradition, and authenticity to show that development is a major cause of historical transformations in places such as Iran and its effects must be seen in relation to global political and historical exchanges as well as local specificities. Iran is a pertinent example as it has endured radical cultural and political shifts in the past five decades. Scholars of heritage and architecture will find the cross-disciplinary aspects of the book useful. The premise of the book is that transposed into other contexts, development, as a globalizing project originating in the West, instigates renewed forms of historical consciousness and imaginations of the past. This is particularly evident in architecture where, through design processes, the past produces forms of architectural heritage. But such historic consciousness cannot be reduced to political ideology, while politics is always in the background. The book shows this through chapters focusing on theoretical context, international exchanges made in architectural congresses in the 1970s, housing as the vehicle for everyday heritage, and symbolic public architecture intended to reflect monumental time. The book is written in accessible language to benefit academic researchers and graduate students in the fields of heritage, architecture, and Iranian and Middle Eastern studies.

Policy rethinking in opposition
William Brown

Labour’s Africa policy under the Governments of Tony Blair (1997–2007) and Gordon Brown (2007–10) was remarkable both for its prominence and its ambition. Few UK Governments in recent times have made Africa such a focus of foreign and development policy. Not only did the UK respond actively to crises as they arose, whether in Sierra Leone or Zimbabwe, but the Labour Government came to promote a long-term and high-profile programme of support for African development. Indeed, Labour made so much of the running on international development

in Britain and Africa in the twenty-first century
Bureaucratic politics in EU aid – from the Lomé leap forward to the difficulties of adapting to the twenty-first century
Adrian Hewitt and Kaye Whiteman

EUD8 10/28/03 3:16 PM Page 133 8 The Commission and development policy: bureaucratic politics in EU aid – from the Lomé leap forward to the difficulties of adapting to the twenty-first century Adrian Hewitt and Kaye Whiteman To integrate or to surpass the French neo-colonial system: the Commission’s choice From the time that a united Europe was a gleam in the eye of Jean Monnet to the signing of the Treaty of Rome in 1957, the institution of the Commission was central to the European idea. Rather than just a European civil service or a think-tank, it was

in EU development cooperation
The formation of a collective imagination
Ali Mozaffari and Nigel Westbrook

Introduction Development, architecture, and heritage: The formation of a collective imagination This book examines the relationship between development, architecture, and the (re)production of the past through architectural design in Iran, from the early 1970s to the 1990s. It will show that this relationship is entangled in larger historico-cultural processes, many of which originated from outside Iran in European Enlightenment and post-Enlightenment intellectual discourses. This relationship between architectural design and the production of the past in the

International, national and community integration
Iain Lindsey, Tess Kay, Ruth Jeanes, and Davies Banda

3 Sport as a development partner: international, national and community integration This chapter considers how partnerships and partnership working, in the broadest sense of these terms, are enacted, structured and influential in relation to SfD in Zambia. The significance of partnerships emerged early in our involvement in Zambia, where it soon became apparent that much of the SfD work being undertaken in the country was

in Localizing global sport for development