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Transnational resistance in Europe, 1936–48
Editors: Robert Gildea and Ismee Tames

This work demonstrates that resistance to occupation by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy during the Second World War has to be seen through a transnational, not a national, lens. It explores how people often resisted outside their country of origin because they were migrants, refugees or exiles who were already on the move. It traces their trajectories and encounters with other resisters and explores their experiences, including changes of beliefs, practices and identities. The book is a powerful, subtle and thought-provoking alternative to works on the Second World War that focus on single countries or on grand strategy. It is a ‘bottom up’ story of extraordinary individuals and groups who resisted oppression from Spain to the Soviet Union and the Balkans. It challenges the standard chronology of the war, beginning with the formation of the International Brigades in Spain and following through to the onset of the Cold War and the foundation of the state of Israel. This is a collective project by a team of international historians led by Robert Gildea, author of Fighters in the Shadows: A New History of the French Resistance (Faber & Faber, 2015). These have explored archives across Europe, the USA, Russia and Israel in order to unearth scores of fascinating individual stories which are woven together into themed chapters and a powerful new interpretation. The book is aimed at undergraduates and graduates working on twentieth-century Europe and the Second World War or interested in the possibilities of transnational history.

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Author: David Whyte

This book explains the direct link between the structure of the corporation and its limitless capacity for ecological destruction. It argues that we need to find the most effective means of ending the corporation’s death grip over us. The corporation is a problem, not merely because it devours natural resources, pollutes and accelerates the carbon economy. As this book argues, the constitutional structure of the corporation eradicates the possibility that we can put the protection of the planet before profit. A fight to get rid of the corporations that have brought us to this point may seem an impossible task at the moment, but it is necessary for our survival. It is hardly radical to suggest that if something is killing us, we should over-power it and make it stop. We need to kill the corporation before it kills us.

Community engagement and lifelong learning
Author: Peter Mayo

In this broad sweep, Mayo explores dominant European discourses of higher education, in the contexts of different globalisations and neoliberalism, and examines its extension to a specific region. It explores alternatives in thinking and practice including those at the grassroots, also providing a situationally grounded project of university–community engagement. Signposts for further directions for higher education lifelong learning, with a social justice purpose, are provided.

Carrie Hamilton

of active resistance. In the next passage (from which the chapter’s epigraph is taken), this return is presented in symbolic terms as breaking the silence imposed on the vanquished by the Franco regime: When an ikurriña was thrown, at the town fiesta, well [laughter] there was an apotheosis. You revolutionised people. You revolutionised them with graffiti . . . You have to live through it . . . suddenly you’ve been silent for forty years . . . these things . . . even get forgotten. It’s as if a son were buried, the prodigal son, and he reappears. You know he’s there

in Women and ETA
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Paul Kennedy

the post of Prime Minister during the conflict. Such had been the prominence of the PSOE during this period that the party paid a high price in terms of incarceration, exile and execution under the repressive Franco regime and the party proved itself to be ineffective under the conditions of dictatorship. By the time that Felipe González gained control of the party in 1974, there appeared little to suggest that the PSOE would, just seven years after Franco’s death, establish a prominence within the Spanish political arena which would be preserved for almost another

in The Spanish Socialist Party and the modernisation of Spain
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Sarah Wright

the legacies of the Catholicism of Francoism still has the power to provoke explosive debate. In Chapter 2, Marisol’s body was seen as an archive, not just of the ways she was called upon to promote Francoism’s policies during the 1960s, but also of her exploitation under the patriarchal fantasy engendered by the Franco regime. If Marisol brings the representation of femininity under Francoism into sharp relief, Chapter 4 explored how masculinity in Spain is still labouring under the legacies left by Francoist patriarchal models. Chapter 3 saw the ways that the

in The child in Spanish cinema
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David Archibald

Spanish Civil War, despite attempts to prevent its cinematic depiction within Spain during the latter years of the Franco regime and the pacto del olvido, continues to arouse great interest. Writing in 1993, Deveney predicted the death of films about the civil war: ‘as time goes on and as the Cainismo in Spanish society subsides, the theme may disappear from the Spanish screen’. (1993: 297) To add weight to his thesis, he then quotes Almodóvar: ‘I deliberately construct a past that belongs to me. In that past, Franco doesn’t exist.’ Deveney then suggests that ‘In

in The war that won't die
From isolation to integration
Paul Kennedy

of the most protracted negotiating processes in the history of the Community. Accession lay at the end of a twenty-­four year odyssey following the country’s first application for association in 1962. This chapter examines the historical background to Spain’s membership of the Community, which may be conveniently split into three main phases: (1) the period leading up to the Franco regime’s application for an Association Agreement in 1962 and the 1970 Preferential Trade Agreement with the Community; (2) negotiations carried out during Spain’s transition from

in The Spanish Socialist Party and the modernisation of Spain
Modernising Spain through entertainment television
Mar Binimelis, Josetxo Cerdán, and Miguel Fernández Labayen

Spain. In the end, History of Frivolity won the Golden Nymph for the best director and was awarded the UNDA prize by the Vatican, which made it easier for it to be broadcast again in better times. The programme also won prizes in Montreux (the Golden Rose and the critics’ prize) and in Milan (best production). Thus, it fully achieved the objective of gaining international prestige but it did also mean that criticism of the practices of the Franco regime was seen for the very first time on Spanish television. As Chicho himself has stated, recalling History of Frivolity

in Popular television in authoritarian Europe
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Sarah Wright

revisit the past. If the Franco regime represented the institutionalisation of the Francoist victory (the 1939 Law of Political Responsibilities, for example, enshrined the criminalisation of all those who were retroactively deemed to have been Republican supporters), the Transition saw the 1977 Amnesty Law shield any Franco era crime from being brought to trial. The ‘spirit of the Transition’ was based 14 The child in Spanish cinema on a fear of a return both to the war and to the Second Republic which preceded it, but even as it allowed democracy to be established

in The child in Spanish cinema