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Silvia Salvatici

and women to join the missions spread over other continents corresponded to the emergence of a transnational network of philanthropic activity which developed in close interaction with the relief work carried out at home. This interaction is clear both if we look at the type of initiatives (and the ways in which they were carried out) ‘in the field’ and if we take into consideration the origins and set-up of the associations that were being founded to support the missionaries’ work. In the archaeology of international humanitarianism we therefore also have to

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
Megan Daigle, Sarah Martin, and Henri Myrttinen

around security) are modelled on whiteness and westernness – on protecting not just white aid workers but the white project of aid as it descends upon ‘risky’ non-western spaces. This criticism extends from how aid engages with local populations (see Benton, 2016 ; Jennings, 2019 ; Loftsdóttir, 2009 ) to the structures and ideologies of humanitarianism, development and international relations (see Anievas et al. , 2015 ; Rutazibwa, 2019

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Juliano Fiori

West. A new political economy of humanitarian aid developed, reinforcing the symbiosis between humanitarianism and the state. The sufficiency of a humanitarian minimum became justification for cuts in public expenditure, particularly as NGOs offered themselves as subcontractors for the provision of essential services at home and abroad. Western governments placed pressure on NGOs to carry out neomanagerial reforms that would promote cultural synergies with their own overseas aid departments, now reorganised according to the business

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Silvia Salvatici

represented by feeling compassion for its victims, a contrast that was not, as we know, new in the question of humanitarianism. The setting up of UNRRA had its roots in the specific historic moment. The plan for the new international body had taken shape since the American relaunch of an internationalist policy that intended to build a juster, safer world after the tragedy of war, taking inspiration in part from Woodrow Wilson’s previous programme. In Roosevelt’s plan, though, the United States’ impetus for the definition of a new world order had also to include

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
Sevasti Trubeta

refugees and migrants at the European borders. The focus of this study is in the period during and after the summer of 2015, and prior to the outbreak of the Coronavirus crisis. I chose this period because what was called the ‘welcome culture’ had shaped a framework of political correctness that conformed with humanitarianism and anti-racism. Moreover, the observations I made during my ethnographic research 9 revealed that there was no unified implementation of such protective measures by those engaged in humanitarian and/or surveillance operations at the borders

in Medicalising borders
The perils of promoting durable protection in cities of the south
Caroline Wanjiku Kihato and Loren B. Landau

. Under the conditions of precarious potential offered by many ‘Southern cities’, the most effective forms of humanitarianism – those providing the safest and most durable forms of self-reliance – come from stealthily negotiating invisibility while expanding entitlements through horizontal solidarities. Promoting rights for displaced persons living among equally poor and vulnerable host populations requires tactical political alliances and solidarities with community-based organisations and local actors. Doing so means breaking from the visibilisation impulse. Instead

in Displacement
Eric James and Tim Jacoby

. Particularly important in this debate has been the perceived erosion of humanitarian independence and other humanitarian principles. Generally, this debate rests on the fissure between those who define humanitarianism narrowly and those who wish to broaden its scope and applicability ( Jackson and Walker 1999 ). Weiss (1999) offers a useful spectrum of

in The military-humanitarian complex in Afghanistan
Open Access (free)
Gender Equality and Culture in Humanitarian Action1
Ricardo Fal-Dutra Santos

. Moreover, important topics or questions remain to be explored by further research, including the practical ways in which humanitarianism can engage in gender-transformative action, its complementarity to the longstanding work of feminist activists, and the relationship between humanitarian action and other cultural identity factors, such as race, ethnicity, class, caste, age, disability and legal status. Definitions Building on Enloe (2004 : 4

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The British Order of St John of Jerusalem and the Red Cross in the Spanish civil wars of the 1870s
Jon Arrizabalaga, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, and J. Carlos García-Reyes

neutrality adopted in the Geneva Convention. It is, therefore, a remarkable early experience of the involvement of a national society of the Red Cross movement in a civil war. 6 As suggested by Rebecca Gill, the history of humanitarianism and of the Red Cross is complex and needs to ‘take account of intricate blends of motivation and ideals’ of ‘those claiming to be “doing good”’. 7 Intersections between the Order of St John of Jerusalem and the international Red Cross Movement and, more generally, war humanitarianism, have not yet been sufficiently studied. This

in The Red Cross Movement
The tragic story of theAboriginal prison on Rottnest Island, Western Australia, 1838–1903
Ann Wood

left returned whenever possible to their country and community. In the genocidal context of settler colonialism, then, humanitarianism had become profoundly paradoxical. At times it seems inaccurate to describe the men I have discussed as humanitarians at all, so readily did many of them – the governors and figures like Moore, Clark and Cowan – see effective punishment as essential for colonisation and

in Humanitarianism, empire and transnationalism, 1760–1995