(Gray and McAnulty, 2006 ). Backed by the
InternationalFundforIreland, there were also attempts to develop
shared neighbourhoods across Northern Ireland, with statutory agencies
working hand in hand with local communities to establish shared spaces
(Goodlad et al., 2005 ). But there was recognition
that these initiatives had to have grass-roots support and could not be
forced on communities who
Some €1 billion has been committed through these programmes. In
addition, the EU has committed over €200 million to the InternationalFundforIreland which, as a result of the contributions received from
its international donors, has done extraordinary work in promoting
economic development and reconciliation.
We hope when the PEACE II programme ends later this year that it
can be followed by a further programme. We will be working closely
with the British to try to assure this. The work is not yet finished. But the
EU has shown that it is not only
the economies of border areas and encourage cross-border cooperation. This programme
was complemented by other funding from the InternationalFundforIreland (IFI) and Co-operation Ireland ( Coakley
The political talks process initiated in the 1990s further
strengthened cross-border cooperative arrangements ( O’Dowd et al. 1995 : 276). The cessation of paramilitary
violence in Northern
the border. The EU, through its PEACE and INTERREG programmes, and
other international funders, such as the InternationalFundforIreland, have been the main source of support over the past two
decades for civil society and community groups to engage in
North-South activity, broadening participation and encouraging
grassroots acceptance of the legitimacy of cross-border working
I RELAND ’ S
With remittances dwindling in importance over the course of the
twentieth century, initially the impact of Irish diasporic philanthropy and
return migration on the economic development of the country was given
priority. Ireland has a very poorly developed indigenous philanthropic
landscape, but has been successful in cultivating philanthropy in the diaspora.
The Ireland Funds, InternationalFundforIreland (IFI), and Atlantic
Philanthropies (AP) are prime examples. Over the past thirty years, the
quality of the economic and social legislation giving effect to it.
This is true not only within Northern Ireland, but it also impacts
on those engaged in cross-border business and social cooperation, as
is shown by the contribution by the chair of the InternationalFundforIreland, Denis Rooney, to a recent IBIS/British Embassy
roundtable discussion of North-South business relations (IBIS, 2010
-up practice was
already being attempted (Gallagher and Carlisle, 2009) was carried out
to inform the project.
A proposal to promote the establishment of school networks and
explore effective models of collaboration was supported by Atlantic
Philanthropies and the InternationalFundforIreland. The project
would invite schools to participate in the project by establishing networks on the basis of the following parameters:
• The network had to work towards sustained, regular engagement
between the schools.
• This engagement would focus on core curricular activities.
promote regeneration through community participation, such as the Belfast Action Teams and Making Belfast Work, and
through international initiatives to promote the British–Irish peace
process such as the InternationalFundforIreland (Acheson and
Williamson, 1995). After 1994, international support for the emergent peace process also imported changing European approaches to
diversity into funding and policy in Northern Ireland, encapsulated
in the a spiration of the PEACE programme to ‘deal with the legacy of
conflict while taking the opportunities arising from
InternationalFundforIreland and the EU Peace Programmes (I, II, III), they have been
responsible for a huge increase in grassroots-level involvement in the region’s
conflict transformation process over the last three decades, prompting previously unforeseen levels of citizen empowerment and local ownership of the
process. Consequently this has assisted in sustaining the peace process during
its most challenging political periods. Despite relatively little in-depth research
on their transformational contribution, these programmes provide a suitable context for assessing the
A constructivist realist critique of idealism and conservative realism
, Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in
Divided Societies (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 1997).
16 This approach motivated the work of various civil society groups who promoted
peace at the grassroots. They often used funds supplied by the European Union
or the InternationalFundforIreland to foster community based peace efforts. See
Chapter 10 in this volume.
17 Dixon, ‘Paths to peace in Northern Ireland (I)’, 14–15.
18 Ibid., 10. McGrattan at the beginning of Chapter 12 cites Soderberg’s critique of
Northern Ireland’s politicians. While