-Martialian tradition, or at least to deny these
elements in their own work.
Renaissance practitioners and theorizing
A theoretical understanding of the epigram in the Renaissance may be
derived from both the poetic treatises of the period – such works as
JuliusCaesar Scaliger’s Poetices Libri Septem, Jacobus Pontanus’s Poeticae
Institutiones, and Puttenham’s Arte of English Poesie – a nd from the prefatory material to published epigram collections.76 Treatises were fairly
uniform in their description of the genre, but Scaliger was the most frequently cited by later writers.77 His
Postcolonial women writers in a transnational frame
national axes – which is conducted throughout.34 Beginning with
Ammu’s comment, à propos of Brutus’s role in JuliusCaesar, ‘you can’t trust
anybody’, and – the unstated corollary – that there must always be someone to
blame for a crisis (GST 83), The God of Small Things tirelessly worries at the
problem of responsibility: the fact that it is the twins’ grand-aunt Baby
Kochamma who betrays the lovers; that a terriﬁed Estha is the one who identiﬁes Velutha to the police. The central question, who does what to whom,
which the novel repeatedly poses, is a further way of
Rewriting Shakespeare in A Poem upon the Death of O. C.
. Margoliouth, Legouis,
Donald Friedman, and Nigel Smith have caught allusions to JuliusCaesar, Antony and Cleopatra, Romeo and Juliet, King Lear, and Henry V
in other parts of the poem.9 But no one seems to have noticed that ‘I
saw him dead’ is a direct quotation of Hal’s startled response to Falstaff’s
rising from the dead in Henry IV, Part 1. Shortly after Douglas appears
to have slain Falstaff in Act 5, Prince John sees Falstaff alive and asks
Hal, ‘Did you not tell me this fat man was dead?’ Hal insists, ‘I did, I
saw him dead, / Breathless and bleeding on the ground
lion symbolises bravery and strength, hence the description of the yeoman
as a ‘counterfeit lion’.
42 Medusa, 1:34 (1819), pp. 271–2.
43 This epigraph varies from the original lines in Cato by Joseph Addison: ‘True
fortitude is seen in great exploits, / That justice warrants, and that wisdom
guides.’ First performed in 1713, Addison’s play tells the story of the eponymous Cato, a Stoic and opponent of JuliusCaesar. The play is regarded as an
attack on government tyranny, and as a championing of individual liberty,
as shown in the Preface to Cato written
Settler emigration, the voyage out, and shipboard literary
‘erosion of gender norms’, as she represents a double inversion of stereotypical gender roles: not only does she protect her brother but she also participates in the violence that usually marked boys’ adventure fiction. 44
In the first two issues of the Somersetshire Gazette , a short play was published with the title The Row, the Wreck, and the Reconciliation . 45 The dramatis personae lists JuliusCaesar Hannibal Smith who has ‘just … lost some twenty thousand pounds’, his daughter Zerlina, her lover and Smith’s clerk, Lorenzo Jones, and an old and rich merchant
Renaissance Texts and Studies (Binghamton,
NY: Center for Medieval & Early Renaissance Studies, 1985), pp. 638–44,
p. 638. He describes the elder Scaliger (JuliusCaesar) as ‘a major exponent of
epigrammatic sequences’ (640) without giving a reference.
67 Reynolds, Epigrammata (1611).
68 Niccols, The Furies, sig. A3r.
Epigrams in print187
69 Charles Cathcart, ‘John Davies of Hereford, Marston, and Hall’, Ben Jonson
Journal, 17(2010), pp. 242–8, p. 243.
70 Jonson, ‘To All to Whom I Write’, Ep. 9.
71 Partridge, ‘Jonson’s Epigrammes: The Named and the Nameless’, p. 155.
Travel fiction and travelling fiction from D.H. Lawrence to Tim Parks
, tolerance and decency. Though Lawrence does not go quite so far
as to argue that England is itself an effect of empire, he insists that it is
a fiction, conceived after the fact to justify the same kind of expansionist
and homogenising practices as were demonstrated by the Romans in their
relationship with Etruria:
In Etruria there is no starting point. Just as there is no starting-point
for England, once we have the courage to look beyond JuliusCaesar
and 55 BC. … What does the word England mean, even? What clue
would it give to the rise of the English, should all our
jumping between two kinds of neck breaking sets up a
pattern that continues to code the development of the letter.
The next thing Lovelace discusses is his own disinclination
to write: ‘how can I think it in my power to divert, when
my subject is not pleasing to myself’. Comparing himself to
JuliusCaesar, Lovelace next swings from considering the
melancholy of having achieved everything he had set out to,
to interrupting himself with the thought that having resorted
to rape he has achieved nothing at all: ‘why say I completed?
when the will, the consent, is wanting
‘Et Tu, Healy’, in which the precocious writer likened
the relationship between Parnell and Tim Healy – trusted lieutenant
and chief agent of the fall – to that (as portrayed in the Shakespeare
play) between JuliusCaesar and his friend Brutus.
It was at this point, Ellmann explains, that ‘the word betrayal
became a central one in Joyce’s view of his countrymen’ (1959: 32).
That sense of betrayal, however, was not only political. Parnell’s
great sin, after all, was to be implicated in a series of personal relationships which undermined the institution of marriage
124–38] Elizabeth Wade White suggests that Bradstreet drew on Sir Walter Ralegh’s
History of the World (1614); see book I, chapter 12.
The third monarchy, being the Grecian, beginning under
Alexander the Great in the 112 Olympiad
Fair Cleopatra next, last of that race,
Whom JuliusCaesar set in royal place;
Her brother by him lost his traitorous head
For Pompey’s life, then placed her in his stead.
She with her paramour, Mark Anthony
Held for a time, the Egyptian monarchy,
Till great Augustus had with him a fight;
At Actium slain, his navy