artistic director and co-founder of
Loose Canon Theatre Company (1996) leads a full-time ensemble of
performers in an ongoing actor training programme. The company’s
philosophy foregrounds the role of the actor in the theatre experience.
Since 1996 they have produced principally works of Elizabethan and
Jacobean drama ( JuliusCaesar, Coriolanus, Hamlet, Macbeth, The
Revenger’s Tragedy, The White Devil, The Duchess of Malfi) as well
as modern European classics such as Ibsen’s Hedda Gabler. In overtly
claiming a genealogy of performance/directing, Byrne is remarkable for
novel, like the play, begins, and in the central plot, concerning the murder of a head of state by an ambitious underling, who is then haunted, literally and metaphorically, by his deeds. The novel also reper-forms the tragedy of JuliusCaesar , which offers a dramatic prefiguration of the plot-line in which the protégé of a political leader becomes his assassin.
Rushdie summons the spirit of tragedy in Shame for a number of reasons. In the first place the strong intertextual bond between Rushdie’s novel and tragic narrative serves to
begin to emerge
between Kilpatrick’s slaying and the assassination of JuliusCaesar,
as depicted in Shakespeare’s famous play. When Ryan delves deeper
still, he also finds connections (some of them linguistic) with
Eventually the truth emerges: Kilpatrick was a traitor who, once
his treachery had been exposed, agreed to participate in an elaborate theatrical performance designed to cement his own heroic
profile and thus to expedite the revolution. Kilpatrick must be
assassinated, and his ‘martyrdom’ must become a rallying point for
those whom he had betrayed
particularly affronted by Scroop’s
The Judas kiss
treason that he likens it to ‘Another fall of man’ (477). Coriolanus
points up the potential contradictions between political allegiance
and personal integrity: the tragic hero’s resolute desire to remain
‘constant’ (703) to himself soon implicates him in ‘Manifest treason’ (718). While in a famous speech from another of the Roman
tragedies, JuliusCaesar, Antony uses rhetoric to unpick the rhetorical distinction between honour and treason (834–6).
In many of the plays, interpersonal deceit and political treason are
‘All good letters were layde a slepe’: medieval sleep and early modern heirs
Megan G. Leitch
. S. Brewer, 2003), p.
57; Cooper, Shakespeare and the Medieval World .
Claude Fretz, ‘“Full of Ugly Sights, of Ghastly
Dreams”: Dreams and Tragedy in Shakespeare’s Richard III’, Cahiers Elizabethiens , 92.1 (2017), 32–49, and
‘“Either His Notion Weakens, or His Discernings | Are Lethargied”:
Sleeplessness and Waking Dreams as Tragedy in JuliusCaesar and King
Lear’ , Etudes Episteme , 30 (2017); Estok, Ecocriticism and
Shakespeare ; Totaro, ‘Securing Sleep in Hamlet’; see
queen is Cleopatra, who escorted JuliusCaesar along the Nile.
61] Ganges: river in northern India, sacred to Hindus.
62] Banians: Hindu traders.
63–64] calcined; purifying waves: Hindu dead are cremated (calcined: turned to ashes),
and their ashes are thrown into the water of the Ganges.
69] Tiber; Horatius’ valour: The Tiber is the river on which Rome stands. Horatius
Cocles (530–500 BC) defended the Sublician bridge against invasion, and swam
back across the Tiber in full armour once it had been demolished (Eardley, Lady
-Martialian tradition, or at least to deny these
elements in their own work.
Renaissance practitioners and theorizing
A theoretical understanding of the epigram in the Renaissance may be
derived from both the poetic treatises of the period – such works as
JuliusCaesar Scaliger’s Poetices Libri Septem, Jacobus Pontanus’s Poeticae
Institutiones, and Puttenham’s Arte of English Poesie – a nd from the prefatory material to published epigram collections.76 Treatises were fairly
uniform in their description of the genre, but Scaliger was the most frequently cited by later writers.77 His
object of the Israelites’ idolatry; see Exodus 32:4.
99] Basan bull: a notoriously strong bull from the fertile region of Bashan (Psalm
22:12). Cavendish puns on ‘Basan’ and ‘brazen’ (of brass).
101] Mahomet: Proverbially, Mahomet called the mountain to come to him.
103] Pompey: a Roman leader, defeated by JuliusCaesar and then killed.
When killed was Caesar, his great enemy.
The wooden-horse that did great Troy betray,
Have told what’s in him, and then run away;
Achilles’ arms against Ulysses plead,
And not let wit against true valour
Renaissance Texts and Studies (Binghamton,
NY: Center for Medieval & Early Renaissance Studies, 1985), pp. 638–44,
p. 638. He describes the elder Scaliger (JuliusCaesar) as ‘a major exponent of
epigrammatic sequences’ (640) without giving a reference.
67 Reynolds, Epigrammata (1611).
68 Niccols, The Furies, sig. A3r.
Epigrams in print187
69 Charles Cathcart, ‘John Davies of Hereford, Marston, and Hall’, Ben Jonson
Journal, 17(2010), pp. 242–8, p. 243.
70 Jonson, ‘To All to Whom I Write’, Ep. 9.
71 Partridge, ‘Jonson’s Epigrammes: The Named and the Nameless’, p. 155.
Rewriting Shakespeare in A Poem upon the Death of O. C.
. Margoliouth, Legouis,
Donald Friedman, and Nigel Smith have caught allusions to JuliusCaesar, Antony and Cleopatra, Romeo and Juliet, King Lear, and Henry V
in other parts of the poem.9 But no one seems to have noticed that ‘I
saw him dead’ is a direct quotation of Hal’s startled response to Falstaff’s
rising from the dead in Henry IV, Part 1. Shortly after Douglas appears
to have slain Falstaff in Act 5, Prince John sees Falstaff alive and asks
Hal, ‘Did you not tell me this fat man was dead?’ Hal insists, ‘I did, I
saw him dead, / Breathless and bleeding on the ground