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Geoffrey K. Roberts

appointment of Adolf Hitler as chancellor in 1933, no fewer than three chancellors (Heinrich Brüning; Franz von Papen; Kurt von Schleicher) were appointed, each ruling by use of presidential emergency powers. In all, a total of sixteen chancellors (including Hitler) were appointed in the fifteen years from 1918 to 1933: a period briefer than the term in office as chancellor of Helmut Kohl (sixteen years), and only one year longer than the chancellorship of Konrad Adenauer (fourteen years). Because of this fatal flaw in the constitutional arrangements of the Weimar

in German politics today (third edition)
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Contextualising reconciliation
Lorena De Vita

Konrad Adenauer (Freiburg: Herder, 2019); C. Fink , West Germany and Israel: Foreign Relations, Domestic Politics, and the Cold War, 1965–1974 ( Cambridge : Cambrige University Press , 2019 ); D. Marwecki, Germany and Israel: Whitewashing and Statebuilding (London: Hurst, 2020). Specific attention must be paid to the works published by former Israeli ambassadors to the FRG. These include: A. Ben-Natan, Brücke bauen – aber nicht vergessen: Als erster Botschafter Israels in der Bundesrepublik (Düsseldorf: Droste, 2005); Y. Meroz, In schwieriger Mission: Als

in Israelpolitik
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Lorena De Vita

In July 1956, Konrad Adenauer was in Bühlerhöhe, his favourite inn in the Black Forest region, enjoying his escape from Bonn’s hectic political life in the company of his son, relishing the quiet of the place. But the Chancellor’s break was interrupted by worrying news coming from Cairo – Gamal Abdel Nasser, who had recently removed his former ally Naguib from power and assumed the presidency of Egypt, announced in a live broadcast that he would nationalise the Suez Canal Company. The Company was a British–French enterprise which, thanks to the political

in Israelpolitik
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Geoffrey K. Roberts

delegation, which included Konrad Adenauer, attended the Hague Conference, which paved the way for the creation of the Council of Europe in May 1949. The Federal Republic became an associate member of the Council of Europe in 1950, and a full member in 1951. However, it was during the chancellorship of Konrad Adenauer (1949–63) that the Federal Republic deliberately and, on the part of the governing Christian Democrats at least, energetically became involved in the process of European integration. In some respects, this was part of a wider process of tying the Federal

in German politics today (third edition)
Harry Blutstein

days’ time. At about the same time, a handwritten letter describing the proposal was handed to the German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer. Although Adenauer had no forewarning, he saw that it resolved a number of problems between France and West Germany, and so he immediately answered: ‘I approve wholeheartedly.’ Everyone was now on board. At 4 p.m. on 9 May, in the gilded Salon de l’Horloge at Quai d’Orsay, Schuman announced ‘his’ plan to create a European Coal and Steel Community. The press conference attracted around 200 journalists, who heard the minister promise

in The ascent of globalisation
Open Access (free)
The French search mission for the corpses of deportees in Germany, 1946–58
Jean-Marc Dreyfus

agreement was finally signed in Paris by Chancellor Konrad Adenauer on 23 October 1954,26 and by the Chancellor and Pierre Mendès-France (who at the time was both Presi­dent of the Cabinet and Minister of Foreign Affairs) during the Franco-­ German meetings that followed the Nine-Power Conference in Paris on the western military alliance. That day also, the four occupying forces signed an agreement resolving the main problems in Germany (the occupation troops were to remain, but the country was to be granted its full independence), and the Federal Republic of Germany

in Human remains and mass violence
Norman Flynn

social democratic welfare state, the liberal democratic and the conservative corporatist. The UK was put in the liberal democratic camp, with France and Germany in the conservative corporatist. For our purposes, analysing differences, it is important to look at the differences between France and Germany as well as the similarities. Germany There is no doubt that Germany’s pension, unemployment benefit and healthcare systems are generous by world standards. While the rhetoric of the critics may be exaggerated, since Konrad Adenauer’s chancellorship, German citizens have

in In search of social democracy
Open Access (free)
The discovery, commemoration and reinterment of eleven Alsatian victims of Nazi terror, 1947– 52
Devlin M. Scofield

: Harvard University Press, 1997), p. 282. 10 Lagrou, The Legacy of Nazi Occupation, pp. 279–​80. 11 Vergangenheitspolitik or ‘politics of the past’ refers to West German political leaders’ approach to the memory and legacies of the recent National Socialist period. Political parties were divided on the issue. The Christian Democratic Union (CDU) led by Konrad Adenauer focused on reintegrating and reconciling former Nazis to the democratic West German government at the expense of confronting Germans’ roles in the Third Reich and justice for its victims. The Social Democratic Party

in Human remains in society
Contemporary dynamics of EU–LAC inter-parliamentary relations
Bruno Theodoro Luciano

foros de Reflexión, Hamburg. Saraiva , M. ( 2015 ). “ Brasil, América Latina e a União Europeia diante de novas agendas globais ”, in Dane , F. Lazarou , E. and Luciano , B. T. , A União Europeia alargada em tempos de novos desafios. Konrad Adenauer Foundation . Socialists and Democrats ( 2017 ). “ Progressives in the EU and Latin America move forward towards the EU–CELAC summit ”, Press Release

in Latin America–European Union relations in the twenty-first century
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Jérôme aan de Wiel

Ireland in the Gilbert Library, Dublin, the Dublin Diocesan Archive, the Stiftung Archiv der Parteien und Massenorganisationen der DDR im Bundesarchiv (Foundation Archives of Parties and Mass Organisations of the GDR in the Federal Archive), Berlin, the Auswärtiges ­Amt-Politisches Archiv (archive of the German Foreign Office), Berlin, the Deutsches Rundfunkarchiv (archive of German broadcasting), Potsdam-Babelsberg, the Evangelisches Zentralarchiv ­ (archive of the Evangelical Church in the former GDR), Berlin, the ­Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung (archive of the German C

in East German intelligence and Ireland, 1949–90