appointment of Adolf Hitler as chancellor in 1933, no fewer than three chancellors (Heinrich Brüning; Franz von Papen; Kurt von Schleicher) were appointed, each ruling by use of presidential emergency powers. In all, a total of sixteen chancellors (including Hitler) were appointed in the fifteen years from 1918 to 1933: a period briefer than the term in office as chancellor of Helmut Kohl (sixteen years), and only one year longer than the chancellorship of KonradAdenauer (fourteen years).
Because of this fatal flaw in the constitutional arrangements of the Weimar
KonradAdenauer (Freiburg: Herder, 2019); C. Fink , West Germany and Israel: Foreign Relations, Domestic Politics, and the Cold War, 1965–1974 ( Cambridge : Cambrige University Press , 2019 ); D. Marwecki, Germany and Israel: Whitewashing and Statebuilding (London: Hurst, 2020). Specific attention must be paid to the works published by former Israeli ambassadors to the FRG. These include: A. Ben-Natan, Brücke bauen – aber nicht vergessen: Als erster Botschafter Israels in der Bundesrepublik (Düsseldorf: Droste, 2005); Y. Meroz, In schwieriger Mission: Als
In July 1956, KonradAdenauer was in Bühlerhöhe, his favourite inn in the Black Forest region, enjoying his escape from Bonn’s hectic political life in the company of his son, relishing the quiet of the place. But the Chancellor’s break was interrupted by worrying news coming from Cairo – Gamal Abdel Nasser, who had recently removed his former ally Naguib from power and assumed the presidency of Egypt, announced in a live broadcast that he would nationalise the Suez Canal Company. The Company was a British–French enterprise which, thanks to the political
delegation, which included KonradAdenauer, attended the Hague Conference, which paved the way for the creation of the Council of Europe in May 1949. The Federal Republic became an associate member of the Council of Europe in 1950, and a full member in 1951.
However, it was during the chancellorship of KonradAdenauer (1949–63) that the Federal Republic deliberately and, on the part of the governing Christian Democrats at least, energetically became involved in the process of European integration. In some respects, this was part of a wider process of tying the Federal
days’ time. At about the same
time, a handwritten letter describing the proposal was handed to the German
Chancellor KonradAdenauer. Although Adenauer had no forewarning, he saw
that it resolved a number of problems between France and West Germany, and
so he immediately answered: ‘I approve wholeheartedly.’ Everyone was now
At 4 p.m. on 9 May, in the gilded Salon de l’Horloge at Quai d’Orsay,
Schuman announced ‘his’ plan to create a European Coal and Steel Community.
The press conference attracted around 200 journalists, who heard the minister
The French search mission for the corpses of deportees in Germany, 1946–58
agreement was finally signed in Paris by Chancellor KonradAdenauer on 23 October 1954,26 and by the Chancellor and Pierre
Mendès-France (who at the time was both President of the Cabinet
and Minister of Foreign Affairs) during the Franco-
meetings that followed the Nine-Power Conference in Paris on the
western military alliance. That day also, the four occupying forces
signed an agreement resolving the main problems in Germany (the
occupation troops were to remain, but the country was to be granted
its full independence), and the Federal Republic of Germany
social democratic welfare state, the liberal democratic and the conservative corporatist. The UK was put in the liberal democratic camp, with France and Germany in the conservative corporatist. For
our purposes, analysing differences, it is important to look at the differences
between France and Germany as well as the similarities.
There is no doubt that Germany’s pension, unemployment benefit and
healthcare systems are generous by world standards. While the rhetoric of
the critics may be exaggerated, since KonradAdenauer’s chancellorship,
German citizens have
The discovery, commemoration and reinterment of eleven Alsatian victims of Nazi terror, 1947– 52
Devlin M. Scofield
: Harvard University Press, 1997), p. 282.
10 Lagrou, The Legacy of Nazi Occupation, pp. 279–80.
11 Vergangenheitspolitik or ‘politics of the past’ refers to West German political leaders’ approach to the memory and legacies of the recent National
Socialist period. Political parties were divided on the issue. The Christian
Democratic Union (CDU) led by KonradAdenauer focused on reintegrating and reconciling former Nazis to the democratic West German
government at the expense of confronting Germans’ roles in the Third
Reich and justice for its victims. The Social Democratic Party
Contemporary dynamics of EU–LAC inter-parliamentary relations
Bruno Theodoro Luciano
foros de Reflexión, Hamburg.
Saraiva , M.
( 2015 ). “ Brasil, América Latina e a União Europeia diante de novas agendas globais ”, in Dane , F.
Lazarou , E. and Luciano , B. T. , A União Europeia alargada em tempos de novos desafios. KonradAdenauer Foundation .
Socialists and Democrats ( 2017 ). “ Progressives in the EU and Latin America move forward towards the EU–CELAC summit ”, Press Release
Ireland in the Gilbert Library, Dublin, the Dublin Diocesan
Archive, the Stiftung Archiv der Parteien und Massenorganisationen
der DDR im Bundesarchiv (Foundation Archives of Parties and
Mass Organisations of the GDR in the Federal Archive), Berlin, the
Auswärtiges Amt-Politisches Archiv (archive of the German Foreign
Office), Berlin, the Deutsches Rundfunkarchiv (archive of German
broadcasting), Potsdam-Babelsberg, the Evangelisches Zentralarchiv
(archive of the Evangelical Church in the former GDR), Berlin, the
Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung (archive of the German C