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Higher education in a globalising WORLD
and Research; International Perspectives on Social Policy, Administration, and Practice.
Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
Habermas, J. (1992). Further reflections on the public sphere. In Calhoun, C. (ed.),
Habermas and the Public Sphere. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
King, R., Marginson, S., and Naidoo, R. (2013). The Globalization of Higher Education.
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Kontowski, D., and Kretz, D. (2017). Liberaleducation under financial pressure
The Negro Education Grant and Nonconforming missionary societies in the 1830s
Britain, as well as to broader debates around the two principles of
religious liberty and religious equality. From the context of the
discussion it is clear that ‘liberal’ did not refer
exclusively to liberaleducation. The term ‘liberaleducation’ itself was as much as an ideal as a practice. In the
eighteenth century, liberaleducation was connected to the notions of
‘character formation, as preparation
Herman Bondi, Karl Popper and the making of scientific citizens
-age education, Bondi additionally highlighted falsification and hypothetico-deductivism in his
account of a liberal scientific education.1
Bondi’s effort to secure science as the basis for a liberaleducation was both timely and difficult. He was troubled by a post-war
education system that seemed designed to entrench the sciences and
the humanities in opposing camps. Given that politicians and senior
civil servants had in the main received a classical education, this
meant that fundamental misunderstandings between Westminster,
Whitehall and scientists echoed on into future
particular difficulties, both
conceptual and practical, in liberaleducation, and there is a strong analogy
between the difficulties involved in teaching people to be autonomous and
bringing them up on the idea of tolerance. The present chapter will focus
on the problems of education to toleration. Its aim is primarily philosophical, that is, to expose the elusive nature of the very idea of toleration and
its implications in education and to discuss some psychological and practical obstacles in educating the young to adopt a tolerant attitude to others.
agents aroused concern that the industrial–military–government complex
would corrupt integrity and disinterested scholarship. Realism ensured that such
contracts did not cease; an arm’s-length relationship might be secured if academic
knowledge production went with semi-arm’s-length diffusion of research findings
in the form of ‘knowledge transfer’. Essentially similar arguments, couched as
liberaleducation, have sought to nurture thinking citizens while remaining safely
apolitical. This formulation has in
middle class to higher civilization, the result of a
more intellectual education’. 18
This kind of liberaleducation was relatively easy to
transport to colonial locations. As John Langton, the
vice-chancellor of the University of Toronto, pointed out in 1860,
the ‘ordinary text-books used in education, the classical
authors in various languages, the books of reference in common use
the republicans in power did endorse a more ‘comprehensive’
than ‘political’ understanding of laïque morality, this was translated almost
exclusively – though crucially – into a distinctive philosophy of education.
On the republican view, it is the chief mission of state schools to inculcate
children with the skills essential to the exercise of autonomy. Now, it is true
that in matters of education, the distinction between political and comprehensive liberalism is elusive.24 Liberaleducation promotes individual autonomy without necessarily being ipso facto
debated in Victorian
England. In Essays on LiberalEducation (1868) for example, F. W.
Farrar published his essay ‘On Greek and Latin Verse-Composition
as a General Branch of Education’, as an extended polemic against
‘compulsory verse-making’. He complained about ‘the
mysteries of the dreadful drill’ and asked how any student could
possibly benefit from ‘the Latin which he endeavours to torture
Providence and because:
To understand the general principles of natural philosophy is highly ornamental
to the physician, for without a knowledge of these (which is by no means difficult
to be attained) no man can pass through life in the character of a gentleman.9
Withers’ work suggests that a broad liberaleducation, embracing polite and
ornamental knowledge, was central to a late eighteenth-century culture of
medicine in which gentility and social inclusion were paramount concerns.
He was not alone in his opinions. His mentor, John Gregory, had told his
Sassoon, Ronald Knox, Raymond Asquith’s sister Lady Violet Bonham-Carter, and
other friends, relations and servants.
Upper-class intellectual culture was founded on the tradition of
‘liberaleducation’ - that is, education for the life of a gentleman - at the
greater public schools and at Oxford and Cambridge. Among the Souls and their children links
with Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, were especially strong. As Raymond Asquith’s
epitaph was intended to indicate, it was principally an education in classical literature