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Bill Dunn

1929, to 1939 and to 1946, reasonably marking stages in Keynes’s intellectual and political career. The belle époque and its demise (1883–1914) Keynes was born into a world of affluent complacency. British capitalism seemed unthreatened either at home – Chartism was a distant memory – or abroad – industrial and military superiority could see off resistance in the colonies with murderous efficiency. The British Navy, in particular, protected the Empire from European challengers. Keynes would later articulate this pre-war world with typical panache

in Keynes and Marx
Open Access (free)
Crisis, reform and recovery
Shalendra D. Sharma

both explicit and implicit pressure exerted by members of the Suharto family, their cronies and other highranking military and government officials to make loans to favored borrowers. Indeed, the practice of making loans based on political pressure became known as “memo lending,” because such loans were extended on the basis of a “memo” sent by the powerful and well-connected. Soon memo lending and other illegal practices led to high levels of non-performing loans at the state-owned banks. The case of a government-owned development bank, Bank Pembangunan Indonesia

in The Asian financial crisis
Costas Simitis

were being examined in cooperation with Eurostat (the ­Statistical Office of the European Communities). They were not the result of false reporting of data. In any case, the decisive factor affecting the new assessments was the scale of the deficit accrued through military expenditure. The mantra that ‘Greece was admitted to the Eurozone on falsified figures’ received global coverage. It was unfortunately adopted by many politicians inside the Eurozone, and is still widely propagated today. This charge, however, ignores the facts.3 Even with the change in recording

in The European debt crisis
Abstract only
Making do, rationing and nostalgic austerity
Alison Hulme

consumptive choices, even on basic food products, administered from above (see Sissons and French, 1964; Longmate, 1971; Briggs, 1975; Hennessy, 1993).5 Wartime propaganda campaigns emphasised that personal sacrifices would ultimately contribute to military victory. This victory was nationalist not only in a straightforward sense that it was about a nation winning, but also in the sense that it defined the nation as the thing that could protect other, larger, less tangible and extremely important qualities –​namely democracy. This brief period of collective thrift was not

in A brief history of thrift
John Wilson

, putting Sir Derek in a very difficult situation. Naturally, he reiterated the company line, that Ferranti International would never knowingly break international law, a position the civil servants accepted. Following this meeting, Sir Derek immediately rang Guerin to seek assurances on the allegation that ISC had been supplying military equipment to South Africa. These were certainly forthcoming, Guerin stating that he was merely involved in supplying personal computers to South Africa, as part of an educational programme aimed at the black community. He also added that

in Ferranti: A History
Abstract only
John Wilson

, the contract would have been sufficiently profitable to resolve these problems over the medium term, reinforcing its vital importance to corporate planning. The board was also confident of winning this order, because in 1989 Ferranti Computer Systems had supplied what was code-named Falcon Eye, a highly sophisticated computercontrolled communications system that covered all air and sea activities across Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, as BAe and Saudi Arabia had already signed the multi-billion Al Yamamah II deal, which involved supplying not only Tornado military

in Ferranti: A History
Open Access (free)
Crisis, reform and recovery
Shalendra D. Sharma

, following the successful coup on May 16, 1961, the military government of General Park Chung Hee embarked on an ambitious plan for national economic development through the strategy of suchul ipguk, or “nation-building through exports” (Kim and Leipziger 1997, 155). This meant that in practice the government’s “external economic policies were marked by mercantilistic trade that encouraged exports and suppressed imports” (Dobson 1998, 162). But, first, as a prerequisite, “Park proposed two important strategies: (1) restructuring the government to become a comprehensive

in The Asian financial crisis
Costas Simitis

European countries. It is misguided to seek a single cause for these developments. The causes are as complex as they are numerous: backwardness in many sectors; ingrained practices and views; inadequate institutional frameworks; absence of social conscience; degree of adaptation to the modern era; even historic causes, such as the Civil War and the rule of the military junta in Greece. Over five decades from the 1950s, Greece gradually unburdened itself of the plethora of controls and restrictions on economic and social life. And then the EMU brought unprecedented

in The European debt crisis
Open Access (free)
Crisis, reform and recovery
Shalendra D. Sharma

, 7) note, during the many years of military rule, “the technocrats would not encroach on the sectoral and microeconomic mismanagement which benefits the political masters, while the latter would allow the technocrats to keep control over the macro economy.” However, under both the Banharn and Chavalit administrations, the BOT and the finance ministry were “pushed and pulled by politicians” with increasing interference in the workings of these institutions from the prime minister’s office (Lauridsen 1998, 157). During the sixteen-months-long Banharn administration, the

in The Asian financial crisis
Open Access (free)
Stan Metcalfe and Alan Warde

several spatial levels, provides preconditions or circumstances for market exchange and competition, and it intervenes to counteract some of the propensities of the market to produce untenable and intolerable inequalities, or environmental Conclusion 193 hazards, or trade in unethical products. The interesting question is how the incidence and form of regulation vary over time and across specific markets. There are some cases – for example, in the provision of public goods such as law and order and military services – where the market’s logic is deemed not to apply

in Market relations and the competitive process