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A framework of inclusion and exclusion
Mark Webber

dimension, but equally have been characterised by intra-state conflict. Further, the general pattern of inter-state security relations in Europe has been more that of cooperation than conflict. The inaccuracy of Mearsheimer’s prediction stems from the logic of his theoretical starting point, that of neo-realism. For Mearsheimer states exist in an international system that is anarchic in the sense that there

in Inclusion, exclusion and the governance of European Security
Trauma, history, myth
Guy Austin

tasked with the creation of an embryonic national cinema? To what extent were ahistorical concerns (for example the representation of traditional, precolonial activities) able to find representation? Finally, how could film represent the trauma of a nation without rapidly transforming history into myth? At play here are not just the external influences of Italian neorealism, of Hollywood and of Soviet cinema, which lend their

in Algerian national cinema
Abstract only
Sam Rohdie

formulations and in neorealism a cultural and artistic opposition to fascism, it is equally possible to see that, because such formulations could take place during the fascist period, either fascism or neorealism or both have to be differently understood. Antonioni’s writings on film in this period of fascism, war, Resistance, social and economic distress were untypical of the writing about film at this time and on the journals and newspapers he wrote for. There is no indication in any of his writings of the events that were taking place in Realism (2)179 Italy, or any

in Film modernism
Adrian Hyde-Price

much traditional analysis of foreign policy has been grounded on realist assumptions about international anarchy and the state as ‘coherent units’ (Keohane and Nye 1977 : 24), there is a pressing need for conceptual and theoretical innovation in this field. New conceptual tools are particularly needed for analysing the external relations of the European Union, given its sui generis nature. Neo-realism offers little of value

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy

This book analyses the use of the past and the production of heritage through architectural design in the developmental context of Iran. It is the first of its kind to utilize a multidisciplinary approach in probing the complex relationship between architecture, development, and heritage. It uses established theoretical concepts including notions of globalism, nostalgia, tradition, and authenticity to show that development is a major cause of historical transformations in places such as Iran and its effects must be seen in relation to global political and historical exchanges as well as local specificities. Iran is a pertinent example as it has endured radical cultural and political shifts in the past five decades. Scholars of heritage and architecture will find the cross-disciplinary aspects of the book useful. The premise of the book is that transposed into other contexts, development, as a globalizing project originating in the West, instigates renewed forms of historical consciousness and imaginations of the past. This is particularly evident in architecture where, through design processes, the past produces forms of architectural heritage. But such historic consciousness cannot be reduced to political ideology, while politics is always in the background. The book shows this through chapters focusing on theoretical context, international exchanges made in architectural congresses in the 1970s, housing as the vehicle for everyday heritage, and symbolic public architecture intended to reflect monumental time. The book is written in accessible language to benefit academic researchers and graduate students in the fields of heritage, architecture, and Iranian and Middle Eastern studies.

Abstract only
Sam Rohdie

Italian neo-realism, best represented perhaps by the films of De Sica (not Rossellini) had two characteristics. One was the conventionality of its narratives and other its rigorous objectivity. It told stories that directly reflected social situations and depicted men and women caught up in these situations. The stories were stories of how they coped with these social realities and in part of the characters as representative of these realities. Antonioni had a different interest and it is from that difference that the whole of his cinema derives. It is, in one sense, a simple proposition, yet characteristic of the modern cinema and perhaps of modernism more generally, namely that reality is a relation and that involves our view of things (not simply as they are, but as they are imagined and felt to be) and that view is necessarily personal and shifting. Fundamentally, for Antonioni, objective reality and thereby a stable reality were false and part of their falsity the sense of their singularity and homogeneity.

in Film modernism
Abstract only
Sam Rohdie

matter how ungovernable they may appear. In Histoire(s), because signs multiply and proliferate in abundance, they become dense and opaque. For example, Rossellini, Hitchcock, Jerry Lewis, neorealism, Lang, innocence, beauty, violence, childhood, monstrosities, hands, eyes, the camera, the gun, focusing, aiming, writing, spying, the Holocaust, Sarajevo, Mozart, Hollywood, Murnau, Dreyer, Welles, death, Rembrandt, Manet, greed, photography, technology, light, voyaging, discovery, experiment, time, control, the Nouvelle Vague, dancing, executions, massacres, and History

in Film modernism
Abstract only
Guy Austin

characteristics of nouvelle vague cinema: the filming of one’s own scripts, a preference for shooting on location rather than in the studio, a degree of formal experimentation, an interest in neorealism, and some reliance on popular genres such as the melodrama and the thriller. Le Beau Serge To make his first film, Chabrol returned to the scene of his wartime childhood, the village of Sardent in central

in Claude Chabrol
Lukácsian cinematic realism in Danton (1990) and Senso (1954)
Ian Aitken

marked the transition from the naturalist style of neorealism to a more ‘realist’ style consonant with Marxist aesthetic theory. Although Italian neo-realism emerged as the most important movement in world cinema in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War, it was always problematic in terms of official Marxist theory, and the dominant Soviet model of socialist realism. One of the origins of neorealism

in Realist film theory and cinema
Valentina Vitali

only a hypocritical cinema. (1970: 14–15) The ‘situation’ evoked here by one of the most important figures of Italian Neorealism was as much an economic crisis as a crisis of objectives and modes of filmmaking. In the summer of 1955, less than two years after the first convention on Neorealism (held in Parma in 1953), the Socialist daily Avanti! published a series of interventions by intellectuals and cultural commentators of varying political persuasions that, in the words of film director Salvatore Piscicelli, marked ‘the liquidation’ of Neorealism (1978: 98). As

in Capital and popular cinema