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Abstract only
Kathryn Nash

1980s, but the ideas that would underpin new norms and guide institutional and policy change were not yet fully developed. Concepts around human security and sovereignty as responsibility developed in the 1980s and throughout the 1990s with ideological innovations from Salim Ahmed Salim, the Kamala Forum, and Francis Deng, among others. It is these ideas that supported the codification of a new human security norms in the AU Constitutive Act. Figure 3 Process from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union The creation of the OAU The

in African peace
Kathryn Nash

) (Organization of African Unity, 21-26 June 1993), 3. AU Commission Archives. 29 “OAU Declaration on a Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management, and Resolution (Cairo Declaration)” (Dipublico, 28–30 June 1993), para. 16, (accessed 7 May 2020). 30 Christine Gray, International Law and the Use of Force (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 222–23. 31 “Resolution 814 (1993): Adopted by the Security Council at Its 3118th Meeting, on 26

in African peace
Open Access (free)
Roger Southall

communities. All public power-wielding bodies, legal authorities and security forces, private power-wielding bodies (from corporations to churches), individual citizens (such as large investors), international legal and political bodies like the Organization of African Unity, and international financial institutions AFRICA 151 should be scrutinized more closely. Measures for assessing the accountability of all such bodies are either available or can be developed, even though they will have to be supplemented by qualitative judgements. Their results will both allow for

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Solutions or further problems?
Edwin O. Abuya

:// (Accessed 1 December 2019). Organization of African Unity ( 1981 ) African ( Banjul ) Charter on Human and Peoples Rights [Online]. Available at (Accessed 24 July 2020

in Statelessness, governance, and the problem of citizenship
Kelly-Kate Pease

Organization of African Unity); the League of Arab States (comprising North African and Middle Eastern Arab States), and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) (an association of Islamic states). While human rights are mentioned as part their mandates, their role in promoting and protecting international human rights is, at best, complicated. The AU human rights framework began under the auspices of the Organization of African Unity but it is not well developed largely because it is under-resourced and it has very little state political will supporting it. 43 The

in Human rights and humanitarian diplomacy
Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.

Institutionalized gesture politics?
Joy C. Kwesiga

various machineries worldwide. In the case of Africa, the ECA and the Organization of African Unity GENDER EQUALITY IN UGANDA 219 • • • • can encourage regional networking. Subregional groupings such as the East African Cooperation Secretariat, the Southern African Development Community, and so on, could also work towards such goals. Periodic research projects at different levels, within national boundaries and beyond, will need to be carried out. This helps to ‘actualize’ issues and events on the ground and provide empirical evidence, which may lead to change

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
The State, autonomous communities and the culture wars
Duncan Wheeler

of Morocco’s King Hassan II raised fears amongst Spanish political elites that the army might be humiliated. 93 An additional reason that Madrid acquiesced to Moroccan demands was concern that an independent Western Sahara would support the burgeoning pro-independence movement in the Canary Islands, 94 which had already established close ties with the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and the Angolan Government. Since the early 1960s, Canarian nationalists identified as colonised Africans on geographical grounds and on the basis that the islands’ native

in Following Franco
Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

witnessed the growth in importance of sub-regional and regional security organizations. Originally created as economic integration structures in the 1970s and 1980s, sub-regional economic communities, such as Economic Community of West African States or the Southern African Development Community, now play an essential role in the continent’s security architecture. Likewise, the AU’s charter and security mechanism have dramatically evolved since the days of the old Organization of Africa Unity (OAU) to assume a more proactive and cooperative peace and security role. The

in African security in the twenty-first century
Francis N. Botchway and Mohamed Salem Abou El Farag

the AU, there is little sign that these noble ideals have been translated into concrete action. One important development under the aegis of the former Organization of African Unity (OAU), and now the AU, is the signing of the Treaty Establishing the African Economic Community (AEC) in 1991. The AEC was the key platform for continental economic advancement. Its principles include

in African perspectives in international investment law