1980s, but the ideas that would underpin new norms and guide institutional and policy change were not yet fully developed. Concepts around human security and sovereignty as responsibility developed in the 1980s and throughout the 1990s with ideological innovations from Salim Ahmed Salim, the Kamala Forum, and Francis Deng, among others. It is these ideas that supported the codification of a new human security norms in the AU Constitutive Act.
Figure 3 Process from the OrganizationofAfricanUnity to the African Union
The creation of the OAU
) (OrganizationofAfricanUnity, 21-26 June 1993), 3. AU Commission Archives.
29 “OAU Declaration on a Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management, and Resolution (Cairo Declaration)” (Dipublico, 28–30 June 1993), para. 16, www.dipublico.org/100609/oau-declaration-on-a-mechanism-for-conflict-prevention-management-and-resolution-cairo-declaration/ (accessed 7 May 2020).
30 Christine Gray, International Law and the Use of Force (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 222–23.
31 “Resolution 814 (1993): Adopted by the Security Council at Its 3118th Meeting, on 26
public power-wielding bodies, legal authorities and security
forces, private power-wielding bodies (from corporations
to churches), individual citizens (such as large investors),
international legal and political bodies like the OrganizationofAfricanUnity, and international financial institutions
should be scrutinized more closely. Measures for assessing
the accountability of all such bodies are either available or
can be developed, even though they will have to be supplemented by qualitative judgements. Their results will both
(Accessed 1 December 2019).
OrganizationofAfricanUnity ( 1981 )
African ( Banjul ) Charter on Human and
Peoples Rights [Online]. Available at www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3630.html
(Accessed 24 July 2020
OrganizationofAfricanUnity); the League of Arab States (comprising North African and Middle Eastern Arab States), and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) (an association of Islamic states). While human rights are mentioned as part their mandates, their role in promoting and protecting international human rights is, at best, complicated. The AU human rights framework began under the auspices of the OrganizationofAfricanUnity but it is not well developed largely because it is under-resourced and it has very little state political will supporting it. 43 The
This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.
various machineries worldwide. In the case of
Africa, the ECA and the OrganizationofAfricanUnity
GENDER EQUALITY IN UGANDA 219
can encourage regional networking. Subregional groupings such as the East African Cooperation Secretariat,
the Southern African Development Community, and so
on, could also work towards such goals.
Periodic research projects at different levels, within
national boundaries and beyond, will need to be carried
out. This helps to ‘actualize’ issues and events on the
ground and provide empirical evidence, which may lead
The State, autonomous communities and the culture wars
of Morocco’s King Hassan II raised fears amongst Spanish political elites that the army might be humiliated. 93 An additional reason that Madrid acquiesced to Moroccan demands was concern that an independent Western Sahara would support the burgeoning pro-independence movement in the Canary Islands, 94 which had already established close ties with the OrganizationofAfricanUnity (OAU) and the Angolan Government. Since the early 1960s, Canarian nationalists identified as colonised Africans on geographical grounds and on the basis that the islands’ native
witnessed the growth in importance of sub-regional and regional security organizations. Originally created as economic integration structures
in the 1970s and 1980s, sub-regional economic communities, such as
Economic Community of West African States or the Southern African
Development Community, now play an essential role in the continent’s
security architecture. Likewise, the AU’s charter and security mechanism
have dramatically evolved since the days of the old OrganizationofAfricaUnity (OAU) to assume a more proactive and cooperative peace
and security role. The
Francis N. Botchway and Mohamed Salem Abou El Farag
the AU, there is little sign
that these noble ideals have been translated into concrete action.
One important development under the aegis of the former OrganizationofAfricanUnity (OAU), and now the AU, is the signing of the Treaty
Establishing the African Economic Community (AEC) in 1991.
The AEC was the key platform for continental economic
advancement. Its principles include