This chapter follows the previous
discussion of public evaluations of anti-terrorism powers by examining
the impact thereof on citizens and citizenship more specifically. Two
main findings from our research are discussed. First, that
anti-terrorism powers have impacted – variably – on four
key aspects of citizenship: rights, participation, identity and duties.
STAGE, IT SHOULD BE OBVIOUS that the official language of
counter-terrorism implicitly constructs the ‘war on
terrorism’ within the ‘virtuous’ or ‘good
war’ tradition (see Lawler 2002 ). Locating
the American response to the September 11, 2001 attacks in the bounds of
the overarching framework of the World War II meta-narrative for
Terrorism as a tactic of
In this chapter our focus is on insurgent groups that have used terrorism
throughout their struggles to replace political regimes or in an effort to secede
from a political community. First, though, we need to place this pattern of
insurgency in context.
Some of the old generalizations about terrorism no longer match contemporary realities. The notion that “terrorism is a weapon of the weak”
no longer applies to many twenty-first century insurgencies. In addition, the
belief that terrorists are interested in the
Terrorism after wars: the
weapon of the weakest?
We have come across a number of instances in which serious terrorist
violence followed rather than preceded insurgencies. Much of the writing on
the subject has suggested that terrorism is used during an early attentiongetting stage of an insurgency (see Chapter 3). In this chapter we investigate circumstances in which terrorist violence appears to follow or increase
toward the end of an internal war.
Unlike wars between states, internal wars are usually depicted as fights
to the finish: either the challengers
smugglers controlling the migrant trade. ( Hopkins, 2017 )
For evidence of this claim, Hopkins repeated the details of both the incident
mentioned by the December 2016 confidential Frontex report, and copy-pasted
directly, maps and graphs included, from the report by Gefira (2016a) about the October 2016 rescue. She then
turned to themes of criminality, terrorism and the threat of swamping:
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, they have been under constant and targeted attack as part of the weaponisation strategy of the GoS ( Fouad et al. , 2017 ). During the peaceful uprising, anyone found to be assisting wounded demonstrators or activists was prosecuted, tortured and sometimes killed. In 2012 the GoS effectively criminalised medical neutrality through anti-terrorism legislation that allowed prosecution of those treating demonstrators injured by government forces ( Fouad et al. , 2017 ). Doctors working in government hospitals were forced to misfile the cause of death of bodies of
Dispelling Misconceptions about Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in
Conflict and Displacement
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Daniel Maxwell and Peter Hailey
some are more political – including direct
interference, minders, intimidation of field teams, limiting or prohibiting
access, creating real and imagined security obstacles and bureaucratic
These come from several sources: governments who do not want the depth of a
crisis to be exposed, donors who do not wish to investigate deeply the impact of
counter-terrorism restrictions or who expect to see ‘results’ from
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